DM Screen

This digital DM screen has everything you need to run a game, with all of the most important rules available to quickly reference to keep the game running smoothly.

Abilities

Skill Checks

Ability Modifiers

ScoreModifierScoreModifier
1-516-17+3
2-3-418-19+4
4-5-320-21+5
6-7-222-23+6
8-9-124-25+7
10-11+026-27+8
12-13+128-29+9
14-15+230+10

Skills

Ability ScoreAssociated Skills
StrengthAthletics
DexterityAcrobatics, Sleight of Hand, Stealth
ConstitutionN/A (See Con Table)
IntelligenceArcana, History, Investigation, Nature, Religion
WisdomAnimal Handling, Insight, Medicine, Perception, Survival
CharismaDeception, Intimidation, Performance, Persuasion

Difficulty Classes

Task DifficultyDC
Trivial5
Easy10
Moderate15
Hard20
Very Hard25
Nearly Impossible30

Strength

Strength measures bodily power and athletic training.

StrengthUsed For…Rule
ScoreDetermines modifierRefer to this chart
Carrying CapacityStrength score times 15 in pounds1
Push, Drag, or LiftUp to 2 times carrying capacity2
ModifierDetermines bonus to strength related rollsRefer to this chart
SaveOpposing a force that would physically move or bind you1d20 + STR mod + Proficiency (if proficient)
Strength CheckAny attempt to lift, push, pull, or break something, to force your body through a space, or to otherwise apply brute force to a situation.1d20 + STR mod
Breaking ManaclesDC 20 check
Breaking RopeDC 17 check
Other possible usesForce open a stuck, locked, or barred door. Push through a tunnel that is too small. Hang on to a wagon while being dragged behind it. Tip over a statue. Keep a builder from rolling.

1 For each size category above medium, double the creatures carrying capacity and the amount it can pull, drag, or lift. For a tiny creature, half these weights.

2 While pushing or dragging weight in excess of your carrying capacity, your speed drops to 5 feet.

Strength Skills

Athletics
AutomaticClimb a wall with plenty of handholds or a secure, knotted rope or rope ladder; swim in relatively calm water; jump a number of feet horizontally equal to half of your Strength score, or your full Strength score with a 10 foot running start; leap into the air a number of feet equal to half of (3 + your Strength modifier), or the full amount with a 10 foot running start 1 2
EasyClimb a wall lacking an adequate amount of handholds, tread water in rough conditions, jump a few feet farther than you normally could; during a long jump, clear an obstacle such as a low-lying hedge or wall of height ≤a fourth of the jump’s distance
ModerateClimb a rope dangling from a protrusion or overhang (i.e. lacking a vertical surface to brace against), swim in rough water or against a mild current
HardClimb a wall with very few handholds, catch yourself on a rope or other handhold in the middle or at the end of your jump, swim in violent water or against a strong current
Very HardClimb a slippery or sheer wall with little or no handholds, climb vertically along an overhang with adequate handholds, swim in stormy waters
Feats of Strength – Other
EasyForce open a stuck or broken door, break free from weak bindings, pull a stuck or wedged object loose
ModerateBreak through a wooden door reinforced with iron, hang on to a wagon while being dragged behind it
HardBreak through a heavy locked or barred door, topple a stone statue
Very HardBreak through a heavy, reinforced door such as a prison or armory door, hold a door shut against a room filling with water

1 A PC can climb and swim under normal conditions without having to make a check; however, strenuous conditions may require that they pass an Athletics check. Each foot of movement during such a check costs an extra foot of movement, or an extra 2 feet if it is considered difficult terrain. Characters with climb and swim speeds ignore the extra costs associated with movement of this type. Similarly, the horizontal and vertical distance a PC can jump without having to make a check is determined by their Strength score and modifier respectively. An Athletics check is generally only required when attempting to jump a distance farther than the amount calculate in the table above.

2 During a vertical jump a PC can extend their arms in order to achieve an extra distance equal to 1⁄2 of their height, which they can effectively add to their jump distance in order to attempt to grab on to a ledge or other handhold.

Dexterity

Dexterity measures agility, reflexes, and balance.

DexterityUsed For…Rule
ScoreDetermines modifierRefer to this chart
ModifierDetermines bonus to Dexterity related rollsRefer to this chart
Armor ClassCertain types of armor add all or some of your DEX mod to your AC
Initiative1d20 + DEX mod
SaveDodging out of harm’s way1d20 + DEX mod + Proficiency (if proficient)
Dexterity CheckAny attempt to move nimbly, quickly, or quietly, or to keep from falling on tricky footing1d20 + DEX mod
Lock picking (with thieves tools)1d20 + DEX mod + Proficiency (if proficient)
Other possible usesControl a heavily laden cart on a steep descent. Steer a chariot around a tight turn. Disable a trap. Securely tie up a prisoner. Wriggle free of bonds. Craft a small or detailed object.

Dexterity Skills

Acrobatics
EasyWalk across an icy surface, stay upright in a turbulent situation, land safely on difficult terrain
ModerateWalk along a narrow ledge, swing from a chandelier and land on your feet
HardCross a wildly swaying rope bridge
Very HardWalk across a tightrope, vault over or under an enemy (through their space)
Sleight of Hand
EasyPerform simple acts of legerdemain such as palming a coin-sized object
Contest (Perception)Plant or steal an object on or from a target, conceal an object on your person
Stealth
Contest (Perception)Conceal yourself from enemies1 2, sneak past unsuspecting targets, slip away while others are distracted
Pick Lock – Disarm Trap – Other
EasyPick a simple lock, jam a simple trap3, perform a task requiring particularly dexterous hands
ModeratePick a typical lock3, escape from tight rope bindings, securely restrain a prisoner
HardPick an elaborate lock, disarm a trap of average complexity3, steer a chariot around a tight corner
Very HardPick a masterwork lock, disarm a complex trap3, escape from locked masterwork manacles

1 Generally, becoming hidden in combat requires being heavily obscured or under total cover, but ultimately the rules leave it up to your personal adjudication.
² Certain types of medium and heavy armor add disadvantage to this roll.

3 Proficiency with Thieves’ Tools allows a player to add their proficiency bonus to checks made to open locks and disarm traps.

Constitution

Constitution measures health, stamina, and vital force.

ConstitutionUsed For…Rule
ScoreDetermines Constitution modifierRefer to this chart
ModifierDetermines bonus to constitution related rollsRefer to this chart
Holding your breathSurvive for minutes equal to 1 + CON mod (minimum 30 seconds), then survives for rounds equal to CON mod. Next turn drops to 0 HP and is dying.
Going without foodCan go without enough food for days equal to 3 + CON mod. Each day past limit gain 1 level of exhaustion.
Determining Hit PointsCON mod added to HP at each level
Using Hit DiceCON mod added to each hit dice used during short rest
SaveEndures a disease, poison, or other hazard that saps vitality1d20 + CON mod + Proficiency (if proficient)
ConcentrationDC equal to greater of 10 or ½ of damage taken while concentrating on a spell
Going without enough waterDC 15 or gain 1 level of exhaustion.
CheckVery rarely used, but can be used to push yourself beyond normal limits
Other possible usesQuaff an entire stein of ale in one go.

Constitution Skills

There are no skills associated with Constitution.1

Concentration
EasyDistracting environmental stimuli such as a wave crashing over the deck of a storm-tossed ship
Variable DCAfter taking damage make a Constitution Saving throw with a DC of either 10 or half of the damage taken, whichever is higher.
Forced March
Variable DCAt the end of each hour a PC must make a Constitution saving throw with a DC equal to 10 + the number of hours traveled past 8. On a failed throw the PC advances one level of exhaustion.
Air Requirements
A PC can hold their breath for a number of minutes equal to 1 + their Constitution modifier (minimum 30 seconds). When out of breath, a PC can survive for a number of rounds equal to their Constitution modifier before they drop to 0 hit points and begin to die.
Food Requirements
A PC must eat one pound of food per day in order to subsist. They can go without food for a number of days equal to 3 + their Constitution modifier (minimum 1) before they begin to starve. This day count is reset when the PC eats their fill for a day; otherwise, the PC advances one level of exhaustion at the end of each day beyond their limit.
Water Requirements
AutomaticA PC drinking less than half the amount of water they require during the day advances one level of exhaustion at the end of the day, or two levels if they are already suffering from exhaustion.
ModerateA PC drinking more than half the amount of water they require during the day but less than the full amount must succeed on a Constitution saving throw or advance one level of exhaustion, or two levels if they are already suffering from exhaustion.

1 Constitution represents a largely passive set of ‘skills’ which have more to do with enduring than performing a specific action the PC can become proficient in. Therefore, Constitution checks are more uncommon than other ability checks and are usually made without adding a proficiency bonus, although situational bonuses may still apply.
NOTE: An ability check is different from a saving throw; players can be proficient at Constitution saving throws.
2 A PC can only travel for eight hours a day before they risk becoming exhausted.
3 A PC requires one gallon of water per day, or two if the climate is harsh.

Intelligence

Intelligence measures mental acuity, accuracy of recall, and the ability to reason.

IntelligenceUsed For…Rule
ScoreDetermines modifierRefer to this chart
ModifierDetermines bonus to Intelligence related rollsRefer to this chart
SaveDisbelieving certain illusions and resisting mental assaults that can be refuted with logic, sharp memory, or both1d20 + Ability mod + Proficiency (if proficient)
CheckDrawing on logic, education, memory, or deductive reasoning1d20 + INT mod
Other possible usesCommunicate with a creature without words. Estimate the value of a precious item. Forge a document. Recall lore about a craft or trade. Win a game of skill.

Intelligence Skills

Arcana – History – Nature – Religion
EasyRecall widely known information; identify common people, places, objects, symbols, fauna, or flora
ModerateRecall more obscure or specific information; identify uncommon people, places, objects, symbols, fauna, or flora
HardRecall truly esoteric or precise information; identify rare people, places, objects, symbols, fauna, or flora
Very HardRecall information that is known only by a privileged few; identify exceedingly rare people, places, objects, symbols, fauna, or flora
Investigation – Other
EasyIdentify a particularly obvious trap or a secret or coded message left by a contact, communicate a simple idea with an intelligent creature you don’t share a language with, discover the true nature of a low-level illusion.
ModerateIdentify a typical trap, determine time or cause of death of a recently deceased creature, estimate the material worth of an item, discover the true nature of a mid-level illusion
HardIdentify a well-hidden trap, object, or area; forge a document or identify such a document, discover the true nature of a high-level illusion
Very HardIdentify a magically-hidden trap, object, or area; discern the purpose and process of a complicated device or system; determine the integrity of a structure, construct, or formation and identify any exploitable weak points

Wisdom

Wisdom measures perceptiveness, intuition, and attunement with the surrounding world.

WisdomUsed For…Rule
ScoreDetermines modifierRefer to this chart
ModifierDetermines bonus to Wisdom related rollsRefer to this chart
SaveResisting effects that charm, frighten, or otherwise assault your willpower1d20 + WIS mod + Proficiency (if proficient)
CheckReading body language, understanding someone’s feelings, noticing things about the environment, or caring for an injured person1d20 + WIS mod
Other possible usesGet a gut feeling about what course of action to follow. Discern whether a seemingly dead or living creature is undead.

Wisdom Skills

Insight
EasyDetermine if a child is telling the truth
ModerateDiscern who among a cagey group is the leader, discern the intended message of a non-verbal communication
HardGuess at the enemy’s next action
Very Hard
Contest (Deception)Determine if someone is lying or disguising themselves or their intentions
Perception
EasySpot a prominent landmark or structure in the distance, hear the far-off sound of thunder signaling a coming storm
ModerateSpot a natural-obscured object or feature, eavesdrop on a conversation in the next room
HardSpot a well-hidden object or feature, eavesdrop on a hushed conversation through a heavy door
Very HardSpot a nearly-invisible object or feature, read the lips of a creature you can see but not hear
Contest (Stealth)Spot a creature attempting to hide, hear the movements of a hidden foe
Survival
EasyFollow a well-worn trail through a forest, follow the tracks of a creature through snow or mud, forage for a day’s worth of food in a plentiful area, navigate on a clear night
ModerateFollow an abandoned or forgotten trail, track a creature through a forest, forage for a day’s worth of food in a sparse area, navigate on a cloudy night, predict an oncoming storm, identify the signs of nearby creatures
HardTrack a creature over barren terrain, forage for a day’s worth of food in a harsh area, navigate through an alien area on a cloudy night, predict tomorrow’s weather
Very HardTrack a creature after rainfall, navigate an alien area on a stormy night
Animal Handling – Medicine – Other
EasyCalm a domesticated animal, stabilize a dying creature outside of combat, diagnose a common ailment
ModerateCalm a wild but otherwise peaceful animal, intuit an animal’s emotional state, set a broken bone, perform a complex maneuver while mounted, stabilize a dying creature in the middle of combat, diagnose an uncommon ailment
HardIntuit a hostile animal’s next action, control an untrained mount, diagnose a rare ailment
Very HardCalm a dangerous wild animal, diagnose magical and divine ailments

Charisma

Charisma measures force of personality, persuasiveness, personal magnetism, social influence, and physical attractiveness.

CharismaUsed For…Rule
ScoreDetermines modifierRefer to this chart
ModifierDetermines bonus to Charisma related rollsRefer to this chart
SaveWithstanding effects, such as possession, that would subsume your personality or hurl you to another plane of existence1d20 + WIS mod + Proficiency (if proficient)
CheckTrying to influence or entertain others, when you try to make an impression or tell a convincing lie, or when you are navigating a tricky social situation1d20 + Ability mod
Other possible usesFind the best person to talk to for news and gossip. Blend into a crowd to get the sense of key topics of conversation.

Charisma Skills

Deception
Contest (Insight)Fast-talk or con someone, adopt a disguise or impersonate another creature, tell a convincing lie or otherwise hide your true intentions
Intimidation
EasyScare a spineless noble in to handing over their coin purse
ModeratePry information out of an uncooperative prisoner, convince street thugs to back down from a confrontation
HardAdvise a guard that it might be best to look the other way this time around, coerce an official in to signing a document
Very HardFrighten a creature larger than you, causing it to flee; stop an agitated mob in their tracks
Performance
EasyRoutine performance such as telling a story in a tavern or around a campfire
ModerateProfessional performance such as an inspiring speech or an impressive musical display which may attract the attention of a local troupe and lead to regional fame
HardMemorable performance which may attract the attention of a local patron and lead to national fame
Very HardExtraordinary performance which may attract the attention of distant patrons and even extraplanar beings
Persuasion
EasyConvince the mayor to allow your party to help, calm a distraught person
ModeratePersuade a group of highway thieves to leave in peace, convince a friendly acquaintance that you know best
HardConvince a chamberlain to let your party see the king, inspire or rally a crown of townsfolk, negotiate a peace between warring tribes
Very HardConvince a sphinx that you are worthy of the secrets it guards, assure a dragon you’re worth more alive than dead

Adventuring

Character Advancement

Experience PointsLevelProficiency Bonus
0
300
900
2,700
1
2
3
4
+2
+2
+2
+2
6,500
14,000
23,000
34,000
48,000
64,000
5
6
7
8
9
10
+3
+3
+3
+3
+4
+4
85,000
100,000
120,000
140,000
165,000
195,000
11
12
13
14
15
16
+4
+4
+5
+5
+5
+5
225,000
265,000
305,000
355,000
17
18
19
20
+6
+6
+6
+6

Travel and Movement

Travel Pace

PaceDistance per MinuteDistance per HourDistance per dayEffect
Fast400 feet4 miles30 miles-5 penalty to passive Wisdom (Perception) scores
Normal300 feet3 miles24 miles
Slow200 feet2 miles18 milesAble to use stealth

Forced March. For each additional hour of travel beyond 8 hours, the characters cover the distance shown in the Hour column for their pace, and each character must make a Constitution saving throw at the end of the hour. The DC is 10 + 1 for each hour past 8 hours. On a failed saving throw, a character suffers one level of exhaustion.

Mounts and Vehicles. A mounted character can ride at a gallop for about an hour, covering twice the usual distance for a fast pace. If fresh mounts are available every 8 to 10 miles, characters can cover larger distances at this pace, but this is very rare except in densely populated areas.

Characters in wagons, carriages, or other land vehicles choose a pace as normal. Characters in a waterborne vessel are limited to the speed of the vessel, and they don’t suffer penalties for a fast pace or gain benefits from a slow pace. Depending on the vessel and the size of the crew, ships might be able to travel for up to 24 hours per day.

Map Travel Pace
Map ScaleSlow PaceNormal PaceFast Pace
Dungeon
(1 sq. = 10 ft.)
20 sq./min.30 sq./min.40 sq./min.
City
(1 sq. = 100 ft.)
2 sq./min.3 sq./min.4 sq./min.
Province
(1 hex = 1 mi.)
2 hexes/hr., 18 hexes/day3 hexes/hr., 24 hexes/day4 hexes/hr., 30 hexes/day
Kingdom
(1 hex = 6 mi.)
1 hex/3 hr., 3 hexes/day1 hex/2 hr., 4 hexes/day1 hex/1½ hr., 5 hexes/day
Special Travel Pace
  • In 1 minute, you can move a number of feet equal to your speed times 10.
  • In 1 hour, you can move a number of miles equal to your speed divided by 10.
  • For daily travel, multiply your hourly rate of travel by the number of hours traveled (typically 8 hours).
  • For a fast pace, increase the rate of travel by one-third.
  • For a slow pace, multiply the rate by two-thirds.

Difficult Terrain

You move at half speed in difficult terrain (dense forests, deep swamps, rubble-filled ruins, steep mountains, and ice-covered ground)–moving 1 foot in difficult terrain costs 2 feet of speed.

Squeezing Into a Smaller Space

A creature can squeeze through a space that is large enough for a creature one size smaller than it. Thus, a Large creature can squeeze through a passage that’s only 5 feet wide. While squeezing through a space, a creature must spend 1 extra foot for every foot it moves there, and it has disadvantage on attack rolls and Dexterity saving throws. Attack rolls against the creature have advantage while it’s in the smaller space.

Climbing, Swimming, Crawling

Each foot of movement costs 1 extra foot (2 extra in difficult terrain), unless a creature has a climbing or swimming speed. At the DM’s option, difficult surfaces or currents may require a successful STR (Athletics) check.

Jumping

Long Jump

You cover a number of feet up to your Strength score if you move at least 10 feet on foot immediately before the jump. When you make a standing long jump, you can leap only half that distance. Either way, each foot you clear on the jump costs a foot of movement.

At your DM’s option, you must succeed on a DC 10 Strength (Athletics) check to clear a low obstacle (no taller than a quarter of the jump’s distance), such as a hedge or low wall. Otherwise, you hit it.

When you land in difficult terrain, you must succeed on a DC 10 Dexterity (Acrobatics) check to land on your feet. Otherwise, you land prone.

High Jump

You leap into the air a number of feet equal to 3 + your Strength modifier (minimum of 0 feet) if you move at least 10 feet on foot immediately before the jump. When you make a standing high jump, you can jump only half that distance. Either way, each foot you clear on the jump costs a foot of movement. In some circumstances, your DM might allow you to make a Strength (Athletics) check to jump higher than you normally can.

You can extend your arms half your height above yourself during the jump. Thus, you can reach above you a distance equal to the height of the jump plus 1 1/2 times your height.

Activity While Traveling

These characters don’t contribute their passive Wisdom (Perception) scores to the group’s chance of noticing hidden threats.

Navigate. The character can try to prevent the group from becoming lost, making a Wisdom (Survival) check when the DM calls for it.

Draw a Map. The character can draw a map that records the group’s progress and helps the characters get back on course if they get lost. No ability check is required.

Track. A character can follow the tracks of another creature, making a Wisdom (Survival) check when the DM calls for it.

Forage. The character can keep an eye out for ready sources of food and water, making a Wisdom (Survival) check when the DM calls for it.

Tracking

Ground SurfaceDC
Soft surface such as snow or sand10
Dirt or grass15
Bare stone20
Each day since the creature passed+5
Creature left a trail such as blood-5

Foraging

Food and Water AvailabilitySurvival DC
Abundant food and water10
Limited food and water sources15
Very little, if any, food and water sources20

If multiple characters forage, each character makes a separate check. A foraging character finds nothing on a failure. On a successful check, roll 1d6 + Wisdom modifier to determine how much food (in pounds) and water (in galloons) the character finds. Make a separate roll for food and water.

Encounter Distances

TerrainEncounter Distance
Arctic, desert, farmland, or grassland6d6 x 10 feet
Forest, swamp, or woodland2d8 x 10 feet
Hills or wastelands2d10 x 10 feet
Jungle2d6 x 10 feet
Mountains4d10 x 10 feet
Audible Distance
Trying to be quiet2d6 x 5 feet
Normal noise level2d6 x 10 feet
Very loud2d6 x 50 feet
Outdoor Visibility
Clear day, no obstructions2 miles
Rain1 mile
Fog100 to 300 feet
From a heightx 20

Becoming Lost

The party’s navigator makes a Wisdom (Survival) check when you decide it’s appropriate, against a DC determined by the prevailing terrain, as shown on the Wilderness Navigation table. If the party is moving at a slow pace, the navigator gains a +5 bonus to the check, and a fast pace imposes a −5 penalty. If the party has an accurate map of the region or can see the sun or stars, the navigator has advantage on the check.

If the Wisdom (Survival) check succeeds, the party travels in the desired direction without becoming lost. If the check fails, the party inadvertently travels in the wrong direction and becomes lost. The party’s navigator can repeat the check after the party spends 1d6 hours trying to get back on course.

Wilderness Navigation
TerrainDC
Forest, jungle, swamp, mountains, or open sea with overcast skies and no land in sight15
Arctic, desert, hills, or open sea with clear skies and no land in sight10
Grassland, meadow, farmland5

The Environment

Falling

At the end of a fall, a creature takes 1d6 bludgeoning damage for every 10 feet it fell, to a maximum of 20d6. The creature lands prone, unless it avoids taking damage from the fall.

Suffocating

A creature can hold its breath for a number of minutes equal to 1 + its Constitution modifier (minimum of 30 seconds).

When a creature runs out of breath or is choking, it can survive for a number of rounds equal to its Constitution modifier (minimum of 1 round). At the start of its next turn, it drops to 0 hit points and is dying, and it can’t regain hit points or be stabilized until it can breathe again.

Vision and Light

Bright light lets most creatures see normally. Even gloomy days provide bright light, as do torches, lanterns, fires, and other sources of illumination within a specific radius.

Dim light, also called shadows, creates a lightly obscured area. An area of dim light is usually a boundary between a source of bright light, such as a torch, and surrounding darkness. The soft light of twilight and dawn also counts as dim light. A particularly brilliant full moon might bathe the land in dim light.

Darkness creates a heavily obscured area. Characters face darkness outdoors at night (even most moonlit nights), within the confines of an unlit dungeon or a subterranean vault, or in an area of magical darkness.

Cover and Concealment

Cover

Cover TypeEffect
1/2 cover+2 bonus to AC and Dexterity saving throws.
3/4 cover+5 bonus to AC and Dexterity saving throws.
Full coverCan’t be targeted by an attack or a spell, although area of effect spells and abilities are still effective.

Concealment

HindranceExamples
Lightly ObscuredDisadvantage on Perception checks relying on sightDim light, patchy fog, moderate foliage
Heavily ObscuredBlinded conditionDarkness, opaque fog, dense foliage
Mundane Light Sources
SourceBright LightDim LightDuration
Candle5 feet+5 feet6 hours
Lamp15 feet+30 feet6 hours
Lantern, bullseye60 foot cone+60 feet6 hours
Lantern, hooded
Lowered Hood
30 feet
+30 feet
+ 5 feet
6 hours
Torch20 feet+20 feet1 hour
Magic Light Sources
SourceBright LightDim LightDuration
Continual Flame20 feet+20 feetUntil dispelled
Dancing Lights10 feet1 minute
Faerie Fire10 feet1 minute
Flame Blade10 feet+ 10 feet10 minutes
Flaming Sphere20 feet+20 feet1 minute
Holy Aura5 feet1 minute
Light20 feet+20 feet1 hour
Moonbeam5 ft cylinder1 minute
Prismatic Wall100 feet+100 feet10 minutes
Wall of Fire60 feet+60 feet1 minute
Senses

Blindsight. Perceive surroundings without relying on sight.

Darkvision. See in darkness as if in dim light and cannot see colors.

Tremorsense. Detect and pinpoint the origin of vibrations within a specific radius, provided that the monster and the source of the vibrations are in contact with the same ground or substance.

Truesight. See in normal and magical darkness, see invisible creatures and objects, automatically detect visual illusions and succeed on saving throws against them, and perceives the original form of a shapechanger or a creature that is transformed by magic, as well as see into the Ethereal Plane.

Food and Water

Creature SizeFood per DayWater per Day
Tiny1/4 pound1/4 gallon
Small1 pound1 gallon
Medium1 pound1 gallon
Large4 pounds4 gallons
Huge16 pounds16 gallons
Gargantuan64 pounds64 gallons
Food

A character needs one pound of food per day and can make food last longer by subsisting on half rations. Eating half a pound of food in a day counts as half a day without food.

A character can go without food for a number of days equal to 3 + his or her Constitution modifier (minimum 1). At the end of each day beyond that limit, a character automatically suffers one level of exhaustion. A normal day of eating resets the count of days without food to zero.

Water

A character needs one gallon of water per day, or two gallons per day if the weather is hot. A character who drinks only half that much water must succeed on a DC 15 Constitution saving throw or suffer one level of exhaustion at the end of the day. A character with access to even less water automatically suffers one level of exhaustion at the end of the day.

If the character already has one or more levels of exhaustion, the character takes two levels in either case.

Weather

d20Temperature
1–14Normal for the season
15–171d4 × 10 degrees Fahrenheit colder than normal
18–201d4 × 10 degrees Fahrenheit hotter than normal
d20Wind
1–12None
13–17Light
18–20Strong
d20Precipitation
1–12None
13–17Light rain or light snowfall
18–20Heavy rain or heavy snowfall
Extreme Heat

When the temperature is at or above 100 degrees Fahrenheit, a creature exposed to the heat and without access to drinkable water must succeed on a Constitution saving throw at the end of each hour or gain one level of exhaustion. The DC is 5 for the first hour and increases by 1 for each additional hour. Creatures wearing medium or heavy armor, or who are clad in heavy clothing, have disadvantage on the saving throw. Creatures with resistance or immunity to fire damage automatically succeed on the saving throw, as do creatures naturally adapted to hot climates.

Strong Wind

A strong wind imposes disadvantage on ranged weapon attack rolls and Wisdom (Perception) checks that rely on hearing. A strong wind also extinguishes open flames, disperses fog, and makes flying by nonmagical means nearly impossible. A flying creature in a strong wind must land at the end of its turn or fall.

A strong wind in a desert can create a sandstorm that imposes disadvantage on Wisdom (Perception) checks that rely on sight.

Heavy Precipitation

Everything within an area of heavy rain or heavy snowfall is lightly obscured, and creatures in the area have disadvantage on Wisdom (Perception) checks that rely on sight. Heavy rain also extinguishes open flames and imposes disadvantage on Wisdom (Perception) checks that rely on hearing.

Resting

Short Rest

  • A period of downtime lasting at least one hour, during which time you can do nothing more strenuous than eating, drinking, reading, or tending to wounds.
  • You regain the use of abilities, features, and resources that are refreshed by taking a Short Rest.
  • You are allowed to expend one of your accumulated Hit Die by rolling a die of the corresponding type. You regain hit points equal to the rolled value + your Constitution modifier. Afterwards, you may choose to spend another Hit Die.

Long Rest

  • A period of extended downtime lasting at least eight hours, during which time you must either sleep or perform only light activities such as talking, eating, or standing watch. These activities can occupy no more than 2 hours of your Long Rest. Performing more than an hour of strenuous activity such as walking or fighting will also interrupt your Long Rest. You may only benefit from one Long Rest in a 24-hour period and you must begin the rest with at least one hit point.
  • You regain the use of abilities, features, and resources that are refreshed by a long rest
  • You regain all of your lost hit points unless otherwise indicated.
  • You regain a number of Hit Die equal to up half of your total possible Hit Die.

Traps

Save DCs and Attack Bonus

Trap DangerSave DCAttack Bonus
Setback10-11+3 to +5
Dangerous12-15+6 to +8
Deadly16-20+9 to +12

Damage Severity and Level

Character LevelSetbackDangerousDeadly
1st-4th1d102d104d10
5th-10th2d104d1010d10
11th-16th4d1010d1018d10
17th-20th10d1018d1024d10

Improvising Damage

DiceExamples
1d10Burned by coals, hit by a falling bookcase, pricked by a poison needle
2d10Being struck by lightning, stumbling into a fire pit
4d10Hit by falling rubble in a collapsing tunnel, stumbling into a vat of acid
10d10Crushed by compacting walls, hit by whirling steel blades, wading through a lava stream
18d10Being submerged in lava, being hit by a crashing flying fortress
24d10Tumbling into a vortex of fire on the Elemental Plane of Fire, being crushed in the jaws of a godlike creature or a moon-sized monster

Languages

Standard Languages

LanguageTypical SpeakersScript
CommonHumansCommon
DwarvishDwarvesDwarvish
ElvishElvesElvish
GiantOgres, giantsDwarvish
GnomishGnomesDwarvish
GoblinGoblinoidsDwarvish
HalflingHalflingsCommon
OrcOrcsDwarvish

Exotic Languages

LanguageTypical SpeakersScript
AbyssalDemonsInfernal
CelestialCelestialsCelestial
DraconicDragons, dragonbornDraconic
Deep SpeechMind Flayers, Beholders
InfernalDevilsInfernal
PrimordialElementalsDwarvish
SylvanFey creaturesElvish
UndercommonUnderdark tradersElvish

Objects

Object Armor Class

SubstanceACSubstanceAC
Cloth, paper, rope11Iron, steel19
Crystal, glass, ice13Mithral21
Wood, bone15Adamantine23
Stone17

Object Hit Points

SizeFragileResilient
Tiny (bottle, lock)2 (1d4)5 (2d4)
Small (chest, lute)3 (1d6)10 (3d6)
Medium (barrel, chandelier)4 (1d8)18 (4d8)
Large (cart, 10-ft.-by-10-ft. window)5 (1d10)27 (5d10)

Huge and Gargantuan Objects

If you track hit points for the object, divide it into Large or smaller sections, and track each section’s hit points separately. Destroying one of those sections could ruin the entire object.

Objects and Damage Types

Objects are immune to poison and psychic damage. You might decide that some damage types are more effective against a particular object or substance than others. For example, bludgeoning damage works well for smashing things but not for cutting through rope or leather. Paper or cloth objects might be vulnerable to fire and lightning damage. A pick can chip away stone but can’t effectively cut down a tree. As always, use your best judgment.

Damage Threshold

Big objects such as castle walls often have extra resilience represented by a damage threshold. An object with a damage threshold has immunity to all damage unless it takes an amount of damage from a single attack or effect equal to or greater than its damage threshold, in which case it takes damage as normal. Any damage that fails to meet or exceed the object’s damage threshold is considered superficial and doesn’t reduce the object’s hit points.

Stealth

When attempting to Hide, there are 4 simple rules to remember.

  1. If someone can see you, you can’t attempt to Hide from them.
  2. Someone doesn’t see you when they’re not looking at you.
  3. Once hidden, you can be detected via sight, hearing, or both, so don’t be seen or heard. If their Perception check or Passive Perception is higher than your Stealth roll, they detect you.
  4. You can hide in plain sight, given a moment of being unseen or unattended and an appropriate concealment strategy.

If you are hidden, or when someone can’t see you, you have advantage on attack rolls against them, and they have disadvantage on attack rolls against you. If you make an attack while hidden, regardless of whether it hits or misses, you are no longer hidden.

Combat

Surprise

The DM determines who might be surprised. If neither side tries to be stealthy, they automatically notice each other. Otherwise, the DM compares the Dexterity (Stealth) checks of anyone hiding with the passive Wisdom (Perception) score of each creature on the opposing side. Any character or monster that doesn’t notice a threat is surprised at the start of the encounter.

If you’re surprised, you can’t move or take an action on your first turn of the combat, and you can’t take a reaction until that turn ends. A member of a group can be surprised even if the other members aren’t.

Initiative

If a tie occurs, the DM decides the order among tied DM-controlled creatures, and the players decide the order among their tied characters. The DM can decide the order if the tie is between a monster and a player character. Optionally, the DM can have the tied characters and monsters each roll a d20 to determine the order, highest roll going first.

Activity On Your Turn

ActivityDescription
MovementDuring your turn, you can move a distance up to your speed. You can break up your movement, using a portion of your speed before or after other actions you take on your turn, including between attacks. Movement through difficult terrain is twice as difficult, costing you 2 feet of movement for every 1. Climbing, crawling, and swimming also cost 1 extra foot of movement for every 1 foot moved. See the Movement section for more details.
InteractionDuring your turn, you can communicate freely within the game (within reason). You can also interact with one object or feature for free as part of your movement or action. Examples can be found below.
ActionYour Action represents a major part of your turn. You can only perform one Action per turn. The most common Action is the Attack action, but there are a variety of other options detailed in the table below. You can also choose to forego taking an Action on your turn, and instead choose to take the Dodge action or Ready an action for later in the round.
Bonus ActionYour Bonus Action allows you to use various class features, spells, and other abilities that specifically state that they may be activated using a Bonus Action. You can only perform one Bonus Action per turn.
ReactionYour Reaction is an action that is made in response to a trigger of some kind and as such, it can be used when it is not your turn. Once you use your Reaction, you cannot use it again until the start of your next turn. Opportunity Attacks are the most common type of Reaction and are made when an enemy leaves your reach. Various class features, spells, and other abilities can also be used as a Reaction.

Movement and Position

On your turn, you can move a distance up to your speed. You can use as much or as little of your speed as you like on your turn, following the rules here.

Your movement can include jumping, climbing, and swimming. These different modes of movement can be combined with walking, or they can constitute your entire move. However you’re moving, you deduct the distance of each part of your move from your speed until it is used up or until you are done moving.

Moving Between Attacks

If you take an action that includes more than one weapon attack, you can break up your movement even further by moving between those attacks. For example, a fighter who can make two attacks with the Extra Attack feature and who has a speed of 25 feet could move 10 feet, make an attack, move 15 feet, and then attack again.

Using Different Speeds

If you have more than one speed, such as your walking speed and a flying speed, you can switch back and forth between your speeds during your move. Whenever you switch, subtract the distance you’ve already moved from the new speed. The result determines how much farther you can move. If the result is 0 or less, you can’t use the new speed during the current move.

Difficult Terrain

Every foot of movement in difficult terrain costs 1 extra foot. This rule is true even if multiple things in a space count as difficult terrain.

Low furniture, rubble, undergrowth, steep stairs, snow, and shallow bogs are examples of difficult terrain. The space of another creature, whether hostile or not, also counts as difficult terrain.

Being Prone

You can drop prone without using any of your speed. Standing up takes more effort; doing so costs an amount of movement equal to half your speed. For example, if your speed is 30 feet, you must spend 15 feet of movement to stand up. You can’t stand up if you don’t have enough movement left or if your speed is 0.

Moving Around Other Creatures

You can move through a nonhostile creature’s space. In contrast, you can move through a hostile creature’s space only if the creature is at least two sizes larger or smaller than you. Remember that another creature’s space is difficult terrain for you.

Whether a creature is a friend or an enemy, you can’t willingly end your move in its space.

If you leave a hostile creature’s reach during your move, you provoke an opportunity attack, as explained later in the section.

Flying Speed

Flying creatures enjoy many benefits of mobility, but they must also deal with the danger of falling. If a flying creature is knocked prone, has its speed reduced to 0, or is otherwise deprived of the ability to move, the creature falls, unless it has the ability to hover or it is being held aloft by magic, such as by the fly spell.

Creature Size

SizeSpace
Tiny2 1/2 by 2 1/2 ft.
Small5 by 5 ft.
Medium5 by 5 ft.
Large10 by 10 ft.
Huge15 by 15 ft.
Gargantuan20 by 20 ft. or larger

Squeezing Into a Smaller Space

A creature can squeeze through a space that is large enough for a creature one size smaller than it. Thus, a Large creature can squeeze through a passage that’s only 5 feet wide. While squeezing through a space, a creature must spend 1 extra foot for every foot it moves there, and it has disadvantage on attack rolls and Dexterity saving throws. Attack rolls against the creature have advantage while it’s in the smaller space.

Jumping, Climbing, Swimming

Climbing, Swimming, and Crawling

Each foot of movement costs 1 extra foot (2 extra in difficult terrain), unless a creature has a climbing or swimming speed. At the DM’s option, difficult surfaces or currents may require a successful STR (Athletics) check.

Long Jump

You cover a number of feet up to your Strength score if you move at least 10 feet on foot immediately before the jump. When you make a standing long jump, you can leap only half that distance. Either way, each foot you clear on the jump costs a foot of movement.

At your DM’s option, you must succeed on a DC 10 Strength (Athletics) check to clear a low obstacle (no taller than a quarter of the jump’s distance), such as a hedge or low wall. Otherwise, you hit it.

When you land in difficult terrain, you must succeed on a DC 10 Dexterity (Acrobatics) check to land on your feet. Otherwise, you land prone.

High Jump

You leap into the air a number of feet equal to 3 + your Strength modifier (minimum of 0 feet) if you move at least 10 feet on foot immediately before the jump. When you make a standing high jump, you can jump only half that distance. Either way, each foot you clear on the jump costs a foot of movement. In some circumstances, your DM might allow you to make a Strength (Athletics) check to jump higher than you normally can.

You can extend your arms half your height above yourself during the jump. Thus, you can reach above you a distance equal to the height of the jump plus 1 1/2 times your height.

Grid Movement

Entering a Square. To enter a square, you must have at least 1 square of movement left, even if the square is diagonally adjacent to the square you’re in.

If a square costs extra movement, as a square of difficult terrain does, you must have enough movement left to pay for entering it. For example, you must have at least 2 squares of movement left to enter a square of difficult terrain.

Corners. Diagonal movement can’t cross the corner of a wall, large tree, or other terrain feature that fills its space.

Ranges. To determine the range on a grid between two things— whether creatures or objects— start counting squares from a square adjacent to one of them and stop counting in the space of the other one. Count by the shortest route.

Actions In Combat

ActionDescription
AttackMake one¹ melee or ranged attack, a grapple, or a shove.
Cast a SpellCast a spell with a casting time of 1 action.
DashGain extra movement equal to your speed for this turn, applying any modifiers.
DisengageYour movement doesn’t provoke opportunity attacks for the rest of the turn.
DodgeUntil the start of your next turn, any attacks against you are made with disadvantage provided you can see the attacker, and you have advantage on DEX saves. You lose this benefit if you are incapacitated or your speed drops to 0.
Escape GrappleMake an Athletics or Acrobatics check contested by the grappler’s Athletics check to escape being grappled.
GrappleWhen you take the Attack action, forego one weapon attack to make an Athletics check contested by the target’s Athletics or Acrobatics check (their choice). If you succeed, your target is grappled.
HelpYour target gains advantage on next ability check to perform the task you are assisting with, or help with attack roll if enemy is within 5 feet of you.
HideYou make a Stealth check.
ImproviseTake an action not described here, providing your DM allows it. E.g. break down a door, intimidate foes.
ReadyPrepare to do something when a specific trigger occurs. Details here.
SearchMake either a Perception or Investigation check in an attempt to locate something.
ShoveWhen you take the Attack action, forego one weapon attack to make an Athletics check contested by the target’s Athletics or Acrobatics check (their choice). If you succeed, you may choose to either knock your target prone or push it 5 feet away from you.
StabilizeUse a Healer’s Kit or make a Medicine check (DC 10) to cause a dying creature to become Stable.
Use an ObjectInteracting with a second object on your turn (the first is free), or a more complicated object.
Climb onto a Bigger Creature²Athletics or Acrobatics check opposed by creature’s Acrobatics check.
Disarm²Use an attack to make attack roll opposed by the target’s Athletics or Acrobatics check. Target has advantage if holding the item with 2 or more hands.
Mark²When you make a melee attack and hit, you can mark them. Your opportunity attacks against the creature have advantage and don’t expend your reaction, however, you may only make 1 attack in this manner.
Overrun²As an action or bonus action make Athletics check opposed by hostile target’s Athletics. If you win, you can move through the hostile target’s space once this turn.
Shove Aside²Use shove to push the target to the side rather than away.
Tumble²As an action or bonus action make Acrobatics check opposed by hostile target’s Acrobatics. If you win, you can move through the hostile target’s space once this turn.

¹ Certain features allow you to make more than one attack, grapple, or shove with this action.
² These actions are optional and can be found on pages 271-272 of the Dungeon Master’s Guide.

Interactions

Here are a few examples of the sorts of thing you can do in tandem with your movement and action:

  • draw or sheathe a sword
  • open or close a door
  • withdraw a potion from your backpack
  • pick up a dropped axe
  • take a bauble from a table
  • remove a ring from your finger
  • stuff some food into your mouth
  • plant a banner in the ground
  • fish a few coins from your belt pouch
  • drink all the ale in a flagon
  • throw a lever or a switch
  • pull a torch from a sconce
  • take a book from a shelf you can reach
  • extinguish a small flame
  • don a mask
  • pull the hood of your cloak up and over your head
  • put your ear to a door
  • kick a small stone
  • turn a key in a lock
  • tap the floor with a 10-foot pole
  • hand an item to another character

Readying an Action

You can take the Ready action on your turn, which lets you act using your reaction before the start of your next turn.

First, you decide what perceivable circumstance will trigger your reaction. Then, you choose the action you will take in response to that trigger, or you choose to move up to your speed in response to it. Examples include “If the cultist steps on the trapdoor, I’ll pull the lever that opens it,” and “If the goblin steps next to me, I move away.”

When the trigger occurs, you can either take your reaction right after the trigger finishes or ignore the trigger. Remember that you can take only one reaction per round.

When you ready a spell, you cast it as normal but hold its energy, which you release with your reaction when the trigger occurs. To be readied, a spell must have a casting time of 1 action, and holding onto the spell’s magic requires concentration. If your concentration is broken, the spell dissipates without taking effect.

Making an Attack

If there’s ever any question whether something you’re doing counts as an attack, the rule is simple: if you’re making an attack roll, you’re making an attack.

Unseen Attackers and Targets

When you attack a target that you can’t see, you have disadvantage on the attack roll. This is true whether you’re guessing the target’s location or you’re targeting a creature you can hear but not see. If the target isn’t in the location you targeted, you automatically miss, but the DM typically just says that the attack missed, not whether you guessed the target’s location correctly.

When a creature can’t see you, you have advantage on attack rolls against it. If you are hidden–both unseen and unheard–when you make an attack, you give away your location when the attack hits or misses.

Ranged Attacks

You can make ranged attacks only against targets within a specified range.

If a ranged attack, such as one made with a spell, has a single range, you can’t attack a target beyond this range.

Some ranged attacks, such as those made with a longbow or a shortbow, have two ranges. The smaller number is the normal range, and the larger number is the long range. Your attack roll has disadvantage when your target is beyond normal range, and you can’t attack a target beyond the long range.

Ranged Attacks in Close Combat

Aiming a ranged attack is more difficult when a foe is next to you. When you make a ranged attack with a weapon, a spell, or some other means, you have disadvantage on the attack roll if you are within 5 feet of a hostile creature who can see you and who isn’t incapacitated.

Melee Attacks

Unarmed Strike

Instead of using a weapon to make a melee weapon attack, you can use an unarmed strike: a punch, kick, head-butt, or similar forceful blow (none of which count as weapons). On a hit, an unarmed strike deals bludgeoning damage equal to 1 + your Strength modifier. You are proficient with your unarmed strikes.

Opportunity Attacks

You can make an opportunity attack when a hostile creature that you can see moves out of your reach. To make the opportunity attack, you use your reaction to make one melee attack against the provoking creature. The attack occurs right before the creature leaves your reach.

You can avoid provoking an opportunity attack by taking the Disengage action. You also don’t provoke an opportunity attack when you teleport or when someone or something moves you without using your movement, action, or reaction. For example, you don’t provoke an opportunity attack if an explosion hurls you out of a foe’s reach or if gravity causes you to fall past an enemy.

Two-Weapon Fighting

When you take the Attack action and attack with a light melee weapon that you’re holding in one hand, you can use a bonus action to attack with a different light melee weapon that you’re holding in the other hand. You don’t add your ability modifier to the damage of the bonus attack, unless that modifier is negative.

If either weapon has the thrown property, you can throw the weapon, instead of making a melee attack with it.

Improvised Weapons

An object that bears no resemblance to a weapon deals 1d4 damage (the DM assigns a damage type appropriate to the object).

If a character uses a ranged weapon to make a melee attack, or throws a melee weapon that does not have the thrown property, it also deals 1d4 damage.

An improvised thrown weapon has a normal range of 20 feet and a long range of 60 feet.

In many cases, an improvised weapon is similar to an actual weapon and can be treated as such. For example, a table leg is akin to a club. At the DM ’s option, a character proficient with a weapon can use a similar object as if it w ere that weapon and use his or her proficiency bonus

Handling Mobs

Instead of rolling an attack roll, determine the minimum d20 roll a creature needs in order to hit a target by subtracting its attack bonus from the target’s AC. You’ll need to refer to the result throughout the battle, so it’s best to write it down.

Look up the minimum d20 roll needed on the Mob Attacks table. The table shows you how many creatures that need that die roll or higher must attack a target in order for one of them to hit. If that many creatures attack the target, their combined efforts result in one of them hitting the target.

For example, eight orcs surround a fighter. The orcs’ attack bonus is +5, and the fighter’s AC is 19. The orcs need a 14 or higher to hit the fighter. According to the table, for every three orcs that attack the fighter, one of them hits. There are enough orcs for two groups of three. The remaining two orcs fail to hit the fighter.

If the attacking creatures deal different amounts of damage, assume that the creature that deals the most damage is the one that hits. If the creature that hits has multiple attacks with the same attack bonus, assume that it hits once with each of those attacks. If a creature’s attacks have different attack bonuses, resolve each attack separately.

d20 Roll NeededAttackers Needed for One to Hit
1–51
6–122
13–143
15–164
17–185
1910
2020

Mounted Combat

A willing creature that is at least one size larger than you and that has an appropriate anatomy can serve as a mount, using the following rules.

Mounting and Dismounting

Once during your move, you can mount a creature that is within 5 feet of you or dismount. Doing so costs an amount of movement equal to half your speed. For example, if your speed is 30 feet, you must spend 15 feet of movement to mount a horse. Therefore, you can’t mount it if you don’t have 15 feet of movement left or if your speed is 0.

If an effect moves your mount against its will while you’re on it, you must succeed on a DC 10 Dexterity saving throw or fall off the mount, landing prone in a space within 5 feet of it. If you’re knocked prone while mounted, you must make the same saving throw.

If your mount is knocked prone, you can use your reaction to dismount it as it falls and land on your feet. Otherwise, you are dismounted and fall prone in a space within 5 feet it.

Controlling a Mount

While you’re mounted, you have two options. You can either control the mount or allow it to act independently. Intelligent creatures, such as dragons, act independently.

You can control a mount only if it has been trained to accept a rider. Domesticated horses, donkeys, and similar creatures are assumed to have such training. The initiative of a controlled mount changes to match yours when you mount it. It moves as you direct it, and it has only three action options: Dash, Disengage, and Dodge. A controlled mount can move and act even on the turn that you mount it.

An independent mount retains its place in the initiative order. Bearing a rider puts no restrictions on the actions the mount can take, and it moves and acts as it wishes. It might flee from combat, rush to attack and devour a badly injured foe, or otherwise act against your wishes.

In either case, if the mount provokes an opportunity attack while you’re on it, the attacker can target you or the mount.

Grappling and Shoving

You can use the Attack action to make a special melee attack, a grapple. If you’re able to make multiple attacks with the Attack action, this attack replaces one of them.

Grappling

The target of your grapple must be no more than one size larger than you and within your reach. Using at least one free hand, you try to seize the target by making a grapple check instead of an attack roll: a Strength (Athletics) check contested by the target’s Strength (Athletics) or Dexterity (Acrobatics) check (the target chooses the ability to use). You succeed automatically if the target is incapacitated. If you succeed, the target is grappled and you can release it whenever you like (no action required).

Escaping a Grapple. While grappled, a creature can use its action to make an Athletics or Acrobatics check opposed by your Athletics check.

Moving a Grappled Creature. When you move, you can drag or carry the grappled creature with you, but your speed is halved, unless the creature is two or more sizes smaller than you.

Shoving

Using the Attack action, you can attempt to shove a creature no more than one size larger than you and within your reach. You make an Athletics check opposed by its Athletics or Acrobatics check. If you succeed, you either move it 5 feet in any direction or knock it prone.

Cover and Concealment

Cover
Cover TypeEffect
1/2 cover+2 bonus to AC and Dexterity saving throws.
3/4 cover+5 bonus to AC and Dexterity saving throws.
Full coverCan’t be targeted by an attack or a spell, although area of effect spells and abilities are still effective.
Concealment
HindranceExamples
Lightly ObscuredDisadvantage on Perception checks relying on sightDim light, patchy fog, moderate foliage
Heavily ObscuredBlinded conditionDarkness, opaque fog, dense foliage

Damage and Healing

Damage Rolls

If a spell or other effect deals damage to more than one target at the same time, roll the damage once for all of them. For example, when a wizard casts fireball or a cleric casts flame strike, the spell’s damage is rolled once for all creatures caught in the blast.

Damage Types

TypeDescription
AcidCorrosive substances, magical or alchemical
BludgeoningBlunt force hits (hammer, falling, etc.)
ColdExtreme low temperature and magic attacks
FireFire breaths and fire based spells and magic
ForcePure magical energy focused in damaging form
Lightninglightning bolt, or electricity spells.
NecroticDealt by certain undead and corrupted magic
PiercingPuncturing and impaling attacks and weapon
PoisonVenomous stings, spores, substances and gases
PsychicMental attacks and damage like psionic abilities
RadiantHoly damage, like divine spells or creatures
SlashingSwords, axes, and monster claws that slash
ThunderConcussive burst of sound or shock wave

Improvising Damage

DiceExamples
1d10Burned by coals, hit by a falling bookcase, pricked by a poison needle
2d10Being struck by lightning, stumbling into a fire pit
4d10Hit by falling rubble in a collapsing tunnel, stumbling into a vat of acid
10d10Crushed by compacting walls, hit by whirling steel blades, wading through a lava stream
18d10Being submerged in lava, being hit by a crashing flying fortress
24d10Tumbling into a vortex of fire on the Elemental Plane of Fire, being crushed in the jaws of a godlike creature or a moon-sized monster
Damage Severity and Level
Character LevelSetbackDangerousDeadly
1st–4th1d102d104d10
5th–10th2d104d1010d10
11th–16th4d1010d1018d10
17th–20th10d1018d1024d10

Lingering Injuries

Damage normally leaves no lingering effects. This option introduces the potential for long-term injuries.

It’s up to you to decide when to check for a lingering injury. A creature might sustain a lingering injury under the following circumstances:

  • When it takes a critical hit
  • When it drops to 0 hit points but isn’t killed outright
  • When it fails a death saving throw by 5 or more
d20Injury
1Lose an Eye. You have disadvantage on Wisdom (Perception) checks that rely on sight and on ranged attack rolls. Magic such as the regenerate spell can restore the lost eye. If you have no eyes left after sustaining this injury, you’re blinded.
2Lose an Arm or a Hand. You can no longer hold anything with two hands, and you can hold only a single object at a time. Magic such as the regenerate spell can restore the lost appendage.
3Lose a Foot or Leg. Your speed on foot is halved, and you must use a cane or crutch to move unless you have a peg leg or other prosthesis. You fall prone after using the Dash action. You have disadvantage on Dexterity checks made to balance. Magic such as the regenerate spell can restore the lost appendage.
4Limp. Your speed on foot is reduced by 5 feet. You must make a DC 10 Dexterity saving throw after using the Dash action. If you fail the save, you fall prone. Magical healing removes the limp.
5–7Internal Injury. Whenever you attempt an action in combat, you must make a DC 15 Constitution saving throw. On a failed save, you lose your action and can’t use reactions until the start of your next turn. The injury heals if you receive magical healing or if you spend ten days doing nothing but resting.
8–10Broken Ribs. This has the same effect as Internal Injury above, except that the save DC is 10.
11–13Horrible Scar. You are disfigured to the extent that the wound can’t be easily concealed. You have disadvantage on Charisma (Persuasion) checks and advantage on Charisma (Intimidation) checks. Magical healing of 6th level or higher, such as heal and regenerate, removes the scar.
14–16Festering Wound. Your hit point maximum is reduced by 1 every 24 hours the wound persists. If your hit point maximum drops to 0, you die. The wound heals if you receive magical healing. Alternatively, someone can tend to the wound and make a DC 15 Wisdom (Medicine) check once every 24 hours. After ten successes, the wound heals.
17–20Minor Scar. The scar doesn’t have any adverse effect. Magical healing of 6th level or higher, such as heal and regenerate, removes the scar.

Massive Damage

This optional rule makes it easier for a creature to be felled by massive damage.

When a creature takes damage from a single source equal to or greater than half its hit point maximum, it must succeed on a DC 15 Constitution saving throw or suffer a random effect determined by a roll on the System Shock table. For example, a creature that has a hit point maximum of 30 must make that Constitution save if it takes 15 damage or more from a single source.

System Shock
d10Effect
1The creature drops to 0 hit points.
2–3The creature drops to 0 hit points but is stable.
4–5The creature is stunned until the end of its next turn.
6–7The creature can’t take reactions and has disadvantage on attack rolls and ability checks until the end of its next turn.
8–10The creature can’t take reactions until the end of its next turn.

Dropping to 0 Hit Points

When you drop to 0 hit points, you either die outright or fall unconscious, as explained in the following sections.

Instant Death. When damage reduces you to 0 hit points and there is damage remaining, you die if the remaining damage equals or exceeds your hit point maximum.

Rolling a 1 or 20. When you make a death saving throw and roll a 1 on the d20, it counts as two failures. If you roll a 20 on the d20, you regain 1 hit point.

Damage at 0 Hit Points. If you take any damage while you have 0 hit points, you suffer a death saving throw failure. If the damage is from a critical hit, you suffer two failures instead. If the damage equals or exceeds your hit point maximum, you suffer instant death.

Stabilizing a Creature. The best way to save a creature with 0 hit points is to heal it. If healing is unavailable, the creature can at least be stabilized so that it isn’t killed by a failed death saving throw. You can use your action to administer first aid to an unconscious creature and attempt to stabilize it, which requires a successful DC 10 Wisdom (Medicine) check. A stable creature doesn’t make death saving throws, even though it has 0 hit points, but it does remain unconscious. The creature stops being stable, and must start making death saving throws again, if it takes any damage. A stable creature that isn’t healed regains 1 hit point after 1d4 hours.

Knocking a Creature Out

When an attacker reduces a creature to 0 hit points with a melee attack, the attacker can knock the creature out. The attacker can make this choice the instant the damage is dealt. The creature falls unconscious and is stable.

Temporary Hit Points

Temporary hit points aren’t actual hit points; they are a buffer against damage, a pool of hit points that protect you from injury.

When you have temporary hit points and take damage, the temporary hit points are lost first, and any leftover damage carries over to your normal hit points. For example, if you have 5 temporary hit points and take 7 damage, you lose the temporary hit points and then take 2 damage.

Because temporary hit points are separate from your actual hit points, they can exceed your hit point maximum. A character can, therefore, be at full hit points and receive temporary hit points.

Healing can’t restore temporary hit points, and they can’t be added together. If you have temporary hit points and receive more of them, you decide whether to keep the ones you have or to gain the new ones. For example, if a spell grants you 12 temporary hit points when you already have 10, you can have 12 or 10, not 22.

If you have 0 hit points, receiving temporary hit points doesn’t restore you to consciousness or stabilize you. They can still absorb damage directed at you while you’re in that state, but only true healing can save you.

Unless a feature that grants you temporary hit points has a duration, they last until they’re depleted or you finish a long rest.

Conditions

Blinded

  • A blinded creature can’t see and automatically fails any ability check that requires sight.
  • Attack rolls against the creature have advantage, and the creature’s attack rolls have disadvantage.

Charmed

  • A charmed creature can’t attack the charmer or target the charmer with harmful abilities or magical effects.
  • The charmer has advantage on any ability check to interact socially with the creature.

Deafened

  • A deafened creature can’t hear and automatically fails any ability check that requires hearing.

Exhaustion

Some special abilities and environmental hazards, such as starvation and the long-term effects of freezing or scorching temperatures, can lead to a special condition called exhaustion. Exhaustion is measured in six levels. An effect can give a creature one or more levels of exhaustion, as specified in the effect’s description.

LevelEffect
1Disadvantage on ability checks
2Speed halved
3Disadvantage on attack rolls and saving throws
4Hit point maximum halved
5Speed reduced to 0
6Death

If an already exhausted creature suffers another effect that causes exhaustion, its current level of exhaustion increases by the amount specified in the effect’s description.

A creature suffers the effect of its current level of exhaustion as well as all lower levels. For example, a creature suffering level 2 exhaustion has its speed halved and has disadvantage on ability checks.

An effect that removes exhaustion reduces its level as specified in the effect’s description, with all exhaustion effects ending if a creature’s exhaustion level is reduced below 1.
Finishing a long rest reduces a creature’s exhaustion level by 1, provided that the creature has also ingested some food and drink. Also, being raised from the dead reduces a creature’s exhaustion level by 1.

Frightened

  • A frightened creature has disadvantage on ability checks and attack rolls while the source of its fear is within line of sight.
  • The creature can’t willingly move closer to the source of its fear.

Grappled

  • A grappled creature’s speed becomes 0, and it can’t benefit from any bonus to its speed.
  • The condition ends if the grappler is incapacitated (see the condition).
  • The condition also ends if an effect removes the grappled creature from the reach of the grappler or grappling effect, such as when a creature is hurled away by the thunderwave spell.

Incapacitated

  • An incapacitated creature can’t take actions or reactions.

Invisible

  • An invisible creature is impossible to see without the aid of magic or a special sense. For the purpose of hiding, the creature is heavily obscured. The creature’s location can be detected by any noise it makes or any tracks it leaves.
  • Attack rolls against the creature have disadvantage, and the creature’s attack rolls have advantage.

Paralyzed

  • A paralyzed creature is incapacitated (see the condition) and can’t move or speak.
  • The creature automatically fails Strength and Dexterity saving throws. Attack rolls against the creature have advantage.
  • Any attack that hits the creature is a critical hit if the attacker is within 5 feet of the creature.

Petrified

  • A petrified creature is transformed, along with any nonmagical object it is wearing or carrying, into a solid inanimate substance (usually stone). Its weight increases by a factor of ten, and it ceases aging.
  • The creature is incapacitated (see the condition), can’t move or speak, and is unaware of its surroundings.
  • Attack rolls against the creature have advantage.
  • The creature automatically fails Strength and Dexterity saving throws.
  • The creature has resistance to all damage.
  • The creature is immune to poison and disease, although a poison or disease already in its system is suspended, not neutralized.

Poisoned

  • A poisoned creature has disadvantage on attack rolls and ability checks.

Prone

  • A prone creature’s only movement option is to crawl, unless it stands up and thereby ends the condition.
  • The creature has disadvantage on attack rolls.
  • An attack roll against the creature has advantage if the attacker is within 5 feet of the creature. Otherwise, the attack roll has disadvantage.

Restrained

  • A restrained creature’s speed becomes 0, and it can’t benefit from any bonus to its speed.
  • Attack rolls against the creature have advantage, and the creature’s attack rolls have disadvantage.
  • The creature has disadvantage on Dexterity saving throws.

Stunned

  • A stunned creature is incapacitated (see the condition), can’t move, and can speak only falteringly.
  • The creature automatically fails Strength and Dexterity saving throws.
  • Attack rolls against the creature have advantage.

Unconscious

  • An unconscious creature is incapacitated, can’t move or speak, and is unaware of its surroundings
  • The creature drops whatever it’s holding and falls prone.
  • The creature automatically fails Strength and Dexterity saving throws.
  • Attack rolls against the creature have advantage.
  • Any attack that hits the creature is a critical hit if the attacker is within 5 feet of the creature.

Equipment and Expenses

Currency Exchange Rates

CoinCPSPEPGPPP
Copper11/101/501/1001/1000
Silver1011/51/101/100
Electrum50511/21/20
Gold10010211/10
Platinum100010050101

Armor

Armor NameCostArmor Class (AC)StrengthStealthWeight
Light Armor
Padded5 gp11 + Dex modifierDisadvantage8 lb.
Leather10 gp11 + Dex modifier10 lb.
Studded leather45 gp12 + Dex modifier13 lb.
Medium Armor
Hide10 gp12 + Dex modifier (max 2)12 lb.
Chain shirt50 gp13 + Dex modifier (max 2)20 lb.
Scale mail50 gp14 + Dex modifier (max 2)Disadvantage45 lb.
Breastplate400 gp14 + Dex modifier (max 2)20 lb.
Half plate750 gp15 + Dex modifier (max 2)Disadvantage40 lb.
Heavy Armor
Ring mail30 gp14Disadvantage40 lb.
Chain mail75 gp16Str 13Disadvantage55 lb.
Splint200 gp17Str 15Disadvantage60 lb.
Plate1,500 gp18Str 15Disadvantage65 lb.
Shield
Shield10 gp+26 lb.

Donning and Doffing

CategoryDonDoff
Light Armor1 minute1 minute
Medium Armor5 minutes1 minute
Heavy Armor10 minutes5 minutes
Shield1 action1 action

Weapons

Weapon NameCostDamageWeightProperties
Simple Melee Weapons
Club1 sp1d4 bludgeoning2 lb.Light
Dagger2 gp1d4 piercing1 lb.Finesse, light, thrown (range 20/60)
Greatclub2 sp1d8 bludgeoning10 lb.Two-handed
Handaxe5 gp1d6 slashing2 lb.Light, thrown (range 20/60)
Javelin5 sp1d6 piercing2 lb.Thrown (range 30/120)
Light hammer2 gp1d4 bludgeoning2 lb.Light, thrown (range 20/60)
Mace5 gp1d6 bludgeoning4 lb.
Quarterstaff2 sp1d6 bludgeoning4 lb.Versatile (1d8)
Sickle1 gp1d4 slashing2 lb.Light
Spear1 gp1d6 piercing3 lb.Thrown (range 20/60), versatile (1d8)
Simple Ranged Weapons
Crossbow, light25 gp1d8 piercing5 lb.Ammunition (range 80/320), loading, two-handed
Dart5 cp1d4 piercing1/4 lb.Finesse, thrown (range 20/60)
Shortbow25 gp1d6 piercing2 lb.Ammunition (range 80/320), two-handed
Sling1 sp1d4 bludgeoningAmmunition (range 30/120)
Martial Melee Weapons
Battleaxe10 gp1d8 slashing4 lb.Versatile (1d10)
Flail10 gp1d8 bludgeoning2 lb.
Glaive20 gp1d10 slashing6 lb.Heavy, reach, two-handed
Greataxe30 gp1d12 slashing7 lb.Heavy, two-handed
Greatsword50 gp2d6 slashing6 lb.Heavy, two-handed
Halberd20 gp1d10 slashing6 lb.Heavy, reach, two-handed
Lance10 gp1d12 piercing6 lb.Reach, special
Longsword15 gp1d8 slashing3 lb.Versatile (1d10)
Maul10 gp2d6 bludgeoning10 lb.Heavy, two-handed
Morningstar15 gp1d8 piercing4 lb.
Pike5 gp1d10 piercing18 lb.Heavy, reach, two-handed
Rapier25 gp1d8 piercing2 lb.Finesse
Scimitar25 gp1d6 slashing3 lb.Finesse, light
Shortsword10 gp1d6 piercing2 lb.Finesse, light
Trident5 gp1d6 piercing4 lb.Thrown (range 20/60), versatile (1d8)
War pick5 gp1d8 piercing2 lb.
Warhammer15 gp1d8 bludgeoning2 lb.Versatile (1d10)
Whip2 gp1d4 slashing3 lb.Finesse, reach
Martial Ranged Weapons
Blowgun10 gp1 piercing1 lb.Ammunition (range 25/100), loading
Crossbow, hand75 gp1d6 piercing3 lb.Ammunition (range 30/120), light, loading
Crossbow, heavy50 gp1d10 piercing18 lb.Ammunition (range 100/400), heavy, loading, two-handed
Longbow50 gp1d8 piercing2 lb.Ammunition (range 150/600), heavy, two-handed
Net1 gp3 lb.Special, thrown (range 5/15)

Weapon Properties

PropertyDescription
AmmunitionYou can use a weapon that has the ammunition property to make a ranged attack only if you have ammunition to fire from the weapon. Each time you attack with the weapon, you expend one piece of ammunition. Drawing the ammunition from a quiver, case, or other container is part of the attack. At the end of the battle, you can recover half your expended ammunition by taking a minute to search the battlefield.
FinesseWhen making an attack with a finesse weapon, you use your choice of your Strength or Dexterity modifier for the attack and damage rolls. You must use the same modifier for both rolls.
HeavySmall creatures have disadvantage on attack rolls with heavy weapons. A heavy weapon’s size and bulk make it too large for a Small creature to use effectively.
LightA light weapon is small and easy to handle, making it ideal for use when fighting with two weapons.
LoadingBecause of the time required to load this weapon, you can fire only one piece of ammunition from it when you use an action, bonus action, or reaction to fire it, regardless of the number of attacks you can normally make.
RangeA weapon that can be used to make a ranged attack has a range shown in parentheses after the ammunition or thrown property. The range lists two numbers. The first is the weapon’s normal range in feet, and the second indicates the weapon’s maximum range. When attacking a target beyond normal range, you have disadvantage on the attack roll. You can’t attack a target beyond the weapon’s long range.
ReachThis weapon adds 5 feet to your reach when you attack with it.
SpecialA weapon with the special property has unusual rules governing its use, explained in the weapon’s description (see “Special Weapons” later in this section).
  (Lance)You have disadvantage when you use a lance to attack a target within 5 feet of you. Also, a lance requires two hands to wield when you aren’t mounted.
  (Net)A Large or smaller creature hit by a net is restrained until it is freed. A net has no effect on creatures that are formless, or creatures that are Huge or larger. A creature can use its action to make a DC 10 Strength check, freeing itself or another creature within its reach on a success. Dealing 5 slashing damage to the net (AC 10) also frees the creature without harming it, ending the effect and destroying the net. When you use an action, bonus action, or reaction to attack with a net, you can make only one attack regardless of the number of attacks you can normally make.
ThrownIf a weapon has the thrown property, you can throw the weapon to make a ranged attack. If the weapon is a melee weapon, you use the same ability modifier for that attack roll and damage roll that you would use for a melee attack with the weapon. For example, if you throw a handaxe, you use your Strength, but if you throw a dagger, you can use either your Strength or your Dexterity, since the dagger has the finesse property.
Two-HandedThis weapon requires two hands to use.
VersatileThis weapon can be used with one or two hands. A damage value in parentheses appears with the property—the damage when the weapon is used with two hands to make a melee attack.

Adventuring Gear

ItemCostWeight
Abacus2 gp2 lb.
Acid (vial)25 gp1 lb.
Alchemist’s fire (flask)50 gp1 lb.
Ammunition
    Arrows (20)1 gp1 lb.
    Blowgun needles (50)1 gp1 lb.
    Crossbow bolts (20)1 gp1½ lb.
    Sling bullets (20)4 cp1½ lb.
Antitoxin (vial)50 gp
Arcane focus
    Crystal10 gp1 lb.
    Orb20 gp3 lb.
    Rod10 gp2 lb.
    Staff5 gp4 lb.
    Wand10 gp1 lb.
Backpack2 gp5 lb.
Ball bearings (bag of 1,000)1 gp2 lb.
Barrel2 gp70 lb.
Basket4 sp2 lb.
Bedroll1 gp7 lb.
Bell1 gp
Blanket5 sp3 lb.
Block and tackle1 gp5 lb.
Book25 gp5 lb.
Bottle, glass2 gp2 lb.
Bucket5 cp2 lb.
Caltrops (bag of 20)1 gp2 lb.
Candle1 cp
Case, crossbow bolt1 gp1 lb.
Case, map or scroll1 gp1 lb.
Chain (10 feet)5 gp10 lb.
Chalk (1 piece)1 cp
Chest5 gp25 lb.
Climber’s kit25 gp12 lb.
Clothes, common5 sp3 lb.
Clothes, costume5 gp4 lb.
Clothes, fine15 gp6 lb.
Clothes, traveler’s2 gp4 lb.
Component pouch25 gp2 lb.
Crowbar2 gp5 lb.
Druidic focus
    Sprig of mistletoe1 gp
    Totem1 gp
    Wooden staff5 gp4 lb.
    Yew wand10 gp1 lb.
Fishing tackle1 gp4 lb.
Flask or tankard2 cp1 lb.
Grappling hook2 gp4 lb.
Hammer1 gp3 lb.
Hammer, sledge2 gp10 lb.
Healer’s kit5 gp3 lb.
Holy symbol
    Amulet5 gp1 lb.
    Emblem5 gp
    Reliquary5 gp2 lb.
Holy water (flask)25 gp1 lb.
Hourglass25 gp1 lb.
Hunting trap5 gp25 lb.
Ink (1 ounce bottle)10 gp
Ink pen2 cp
Jug or pitcher2 cp4 lb.
Ladder (10-foot)1 sp25 lb.
Lamp5 sp1 lb.
Lantern, bullseye10 gp2 lb.
Lantern, hooded5 gp2 lb.
Lock10 gp1 lb.
Magnifying glass100 gp
Manacles2 gp6 lb.
Mess kit2 sp1 lb.
Mirror, steel5 gp1/2 lb.
Oil (flask)1 sp1 lb.
Paper (one sheet)2 sp
Parchment (one sheet)1 sp
Perfume (vial)5 gp
Pick, miner’s2 gp10 lb.
Piton5 cp1/4 lb.
Poison, basic (vial)100 gp
Pole (10-foot)5 cp7 lb.
Pot, iron2 gp10 lb.
Potion of healing50 gp1/2 lb.
Pouch5 sp1 lb.
Quiver1 gp1 lb.
Ram, portable4 gp35 lb.
Rations (1 day)5 sp2 lb.
Robes1 gp4 lb.
Rope, hempen (50 feet)1 gp10 lb.
Rope, silk (50 feet)10 gp5 lb.
Sack1 cp1/2 lb.
Scale, merchant’s5 gp3 lb.
Sealing wax5 sp
Shovel2 gp5 lb.
Signal whistle5 cp
Signet ring5 gp
Soap2 cp
Spellbook50 gp3 lb.
Spikes, iron (10)1 gp5 lb.
Spyglass1,000 gp1 lb.
Tent, two-person2 gp20 lb.
Tinderbox5 sp1 lb.
Torch1 cp1 lb.
Vial1 gp
Waterskin2 sp5 lb. (full)
Whetstone1 cp1 lb.

Tools

ItemCostWeight
Artisan’s tools
    Alchemist’s supplies50 gp8 lb.
    Brewer’s supplies20 gp9 lb.
    Calligrapher’s supplies10 gp5 lb.
    Carpenter’s tools8 gp6 lb.
    Cartographer’s tools15 gp.6 lb.
    Cobbler’s tools5 gp5 lb.
    Cook’s utensils1 gp8 lb.
    Glassblower’s tools30 gp5 lb.
    Jeweler’s tools25 gp2 lb.
    Leatherworker’s tools5 gp5 lb.
    Mason’s tools10 gp8 lb.
    Painter’s supplies10 gp5 lb.
    Potter’s tools10 gp3 lb.
    Smith’s tools20 gp8 lb.
    Tinker’s tools50 gp10 lb.
    Weaver’s tools1 gp5 lb.
    Woodcarver’s tools1 gp5 lb.
Disguise kit25 gp3 lb.
Forgery kit15 gp5 lb.
Gaming set
    Dice set1 sp
    Dragonchess set1 gp1/2 lb.
    Playing card set5 sp
    Three-Dragon Ante set1 gp
Herbalism kit5 gp3 lb.
Musical instrument
    Bagpipes30 gp6 lb.
    Drum6 gp3 lb.
    Dulcimer25 gp10 lb.
    Flute2 gp1 lb.
    Lute35 gp2 lb.
    Lyre30 gp2 lb.
    Horn3 gp2 lb.
    Pan flute12 gp2 lb.
    Shawm2 gp1 lb.
    Viol30 gp1 lb.
Navigator’s tools25 gp2 lb.
Poisoner’s kit50 gp2 lb.
Thieves’ tools25 gp1 lb.

Container Capacity

ContainerCapacity
Backpack*1 cubic foot/30 pounds of gear
Barrel40 gallons liquid, 4 cubic feet solid
Basket2 cubic feet/40 pounds of gear
Bottle1 1/2 pints liquid
Bucket3 gallons liquid, 1/2 cubic foot solid
Chest12 cubic feet/300 pounds gear
Flask or tankard1 pint liquid
Jug or pitcher1 gallon liquid
Pot, iron1 gallon liquid
Pouch1/5 cubic foot/6 pounds of gear
Sack1 cubic foot/30 pounds of gear
Vial4 ounces liquid
Waterskin4 pints liquid

* You can also strap items, such as a bedroll or a coil of rope, to the outside of a backpack.

Mounts and Vehicles

Mounts

ItemCostSpeedCarrying Capacity
Camel50gp50ft.480 lb
Donkey or Mule8gp40ft.420 lb
Elephant200gp40ft.1320 lb
Horse, draft50gp40ft.540 lb
Horse, riding75gp60ft.480 lb
Mastiff25gp40ft.195 lb
Pony30gp40ft.225 lb
Warhorse400gp60ft.540 lb

Tack, Harness, and Drawn Vehicles

ItemCostWeight
Bardingx4x2
Bit and bridle2gp1 lb
Carriage100gp600 lb
Cart15gp200 lb
Chariot250gp100 lb
Feed (per day)5cp10 lb
Saddle
    Exotic60gp40 lb
    Military20gp30 lb
    Pack5gp15 lb
    Riding10gp25 lb
Saddlebags4gp8 lb
Sled20gp300 lb
Stabling (per day)5sp
Wagon35gp400 lb

Waterborne Vehicles

ItemCostSpeed
Galley30,000gp4 mph
Keelboat3,000gp1 mph
Longship10,000gp3 mph
Rowboat50gp1.5 mph
Sailing Ship10,000gp2 mph
Warship25,000gp2.5 mph

Trade Goods

CostGoods
1 cp1 lb. of wheat
2 cp1 lb. of flour or one chicken
5 cp1 lb. of salt
1 sp1 lb. of iron or 1 sq. yd. of canvas
5 sp1 lb. of copper of 1 sq. yd. of cotton cloth
1 gp1 lb. of ginger or one goat
2 gp1 lb. of cinnamon or pepper, or one sheep
3 gp1 lb. of cloves or one pig
5 gp1 lb. of silver or 1 sq. yd. of linen
10 gp1 sq. yd. of silk or one cow
15 gp1 lb. of saffron or one ox
50 gp1 lb. of gold
500 gp1 lb. of platinum

Expenses

LifestylePrice/Day
Wretched
Squalid1 sp
Poor2 sp
Modest1 gp
Comfortable2 gp
Wealthy4 gp
Aristocratic10 gp minimum

Food, Drink, and Lodging

Food and Drink
ItemCost
Ale (gallon)2 sp
Ale (mug)4 cp
Banquet (per person)10 gp
Bread, loaf2 cp
Cheese, hunk1 sp
Meat, chunk3 sp
Wine, common (pitcher)2 sp
Wine, fine (bottle)10 gp
Meals and Lodging (per day)
ItemMeals CostLodging Cost
Squalid3 cp7 cp
Poor6 cp1 sp
Modest3 sp5 sp
Comfortable5 sp8 sp
Wealthy8 sp2 gp
Aristocratic2 gp4 gp

Services

ServicePay
Coach cab (Between towns)3 cp per mile
Coach cab (Within a city)1 cp
Hireling (Skilled)2 gp per day
Hireling (Untrained)2 sp per day
Messenger2 cp per mile
Road or gate toll1 cp
Ship’s passage1 sp per mile
1st Level Spell110-30 gp + components
2nd Level Spell130-50 gp + components
3rd+ Level Spell2Varies3

1 First and second level spellcasting services are easy enough to find in a decently sized city or town.
2 Third level and higher spells are much more rare and can only be found with any amount of regularity in a large city, perhaps home to a University or Temple.
3 A spellcaster might ask for a service rather than monetary payment.

Useful Items

Acid. As an action, you can splash the contents of this vial onto a creature within 5 feet of you or throw the vial up to 20 feet, shattering it on impact. In either case, make a ranged attack against a creature or object, treating the acid as an improvised weapon. On a hit, the target takes 2d6 acid damage.

Alchemist’s Fire. This sticky, adhesive fluid ignites when exposed to air. As an action, you can throw this flask up to 20 feet, shattering it on impact. Make a ranged attack against a creature or object, treating the alchemist’s fire as an improvised weapon. On a hit, the target takes 1d4 fire damage at the start of each of its turns. A creature can end this damage by using its action to make a DC 10 Dexterity check to extinguish the flames.

Antitoxin. A creature that drinks this vial of liquid gains advantage on saving throws against poison for 1 hour. It confers no benefit to undead or constructs.

Ball Bearings. As an action, you can spill these tiny metal balls from their pouch to cover a level, square area that is 10 feet on a side. A creature moving across the covered area must succeed on a DC 10 Dexterity saving throw or fall prone. A creature moving through the area at half speed doesn’t need to make the save.

Caltrops. As an action, you can spread a bag of caltrops to cover a square area that is 5 feet on a side. Any creature that enters the area must succeed on a DC 15 Dexterity saving throw or stop moving this turn and take 1 piercing damage. Taking this damage reduces the creature’s walking speed by 10 feet until the creature regains at least 1 hit point. A creature moving through the area at half speed doesn’t need to make the save.

Healer’s Kit. This kit is a leather pouch containing bandages, salves, and splints. The kit has ten uses. As an action, you can expend one use of the kit to stabilize a creature that has 0 hit points, without needing to make a Wisdom (Medicine) check.

Holy Water. As an action, you can splash the contents of this flask onto a creature within 5 feet of you or throw it up to 20 feet, shattering it on impact. In either case, make a ranged attack against a target creature, treating the holy water as an improvised weapon. If the target is a fiend or undead, it takes 2d6 radiant damage.

A cleric or paladin may create holy water by performing a special ritual. The ritual takes 1 hour to perform, uses 25 gp worth of powdered silver, and requires the caster to expend a 1st-level spell slot.

Oil. Oil usually comes in a clay flask that holds 1 pint. As an action, you can splash the oil in this flask onto a creature within 5 feet of you or throw it up to 20 feet, shattering it on impact. Make a ranged attack against a target creature or object, treating the oil as an improvised weapon. On a hit, the target is covered in oil. If the target takes any fire damage before the oil dries (after 1 minute), the target takes an additional 5 fire damage from the burning oil. You can also pour a flask of oil on the ground to cover a 5-foot-square area, provided that the surface is level. If lit, the oil burns for 2 rounds and deals 5 fire damage to any creature that enters the area or ends its turn in the area. A creature can take this damage only once per turn.

Potion of Healing. A character who drinks the magical red fluid in this vial regains 2d4 + 2 hit points. Drinking or administering a potion takes an action.

Torch. A torch burns for 1 hour, providing bright light in a 20-foot radius and dim light for an additional 20 feet. If you make a melee attack with a burning torch and hit, it deals 1 fire damage.

Spellcasting

Casting in Armor

Because of the mental focus and precise gestures required for spellcasting, you must be proficient with the armor you are wearing to cast a spell. You are otherwise too distracted and physically hampered by your armor for spellcasting.

Rituals

The ritual version of a spell takes 10 minutes longer to cast than normal. It also doesn’t expend a spell slot, which means the ritual version of a spell can’t be cast at a higher level.

Longer Casting Times

Certain spells (including spells cast as rituals) require more time to cast: minutes or even hours. When you cast a spell with a casting time longer than a single action or reaction, you must spend your action each turn casting the spell, and you must maintain your concentration while you do so. If your concentration is broken, the spell fails, but you don’t expend a spell slot. If you want to try casting the spell again, you must start over.

Concentration

Some spells require you to maintain concentration in order to keep their magic active. If you lose concentration, such a spell ends.

If a spell must be maintained with concentration, that fact appears in its Duration entry, and the spell specifies how long you can concentrate on it. You can end concentration at any time (no action required).

Normal activity, such as moving and attacking, doesn’t interfere with concentration. The following factors can break concentration:

  • Casting another spell that requires concentration. You lose concentration on a spell if you cast another spell that requires concentration. You can’t concentrate on two spells at once.
  • Taking damage. Whenever you take damage while you are concentrating on a spell, you must make a Constitution saving throw to maintain your concentration. The DC equals 10 or half the damage you take, whichever number is higher. If you take damage from multiple sources, such as an arrow and a dragon’s breath, you make a separate saving throw for each source of damage.
  • Being incapacitated or killed. You lose concentration on a spell if you are incapacitated or if you die.

The DM might also decide that certain environmental phenomena, such as a wave crashing over you while you’re on a storm-tossed ship, require you to succeed on a DC 10 Constitution saving throw to maintain concentration on a spell.

Saving Throws

The DC to resist one of your spells equals 8 + your spellcasting ability modifier + your proficiency bonus + any special modifiers.

Attack Rolls

Your attack bonus with a spell attack equals your spellcasting ability modifier + your proficiency bonus.

Remember that you have disadvantage on a ranged attack roll if you are within 5 feet of a hostile creature that can see you and that isn’t incapacitated.

Casting From Scrolls

Whatever the nature of the magic contained in a scroll, unleashing that magic requires using an action to read the scroll. When its magic has been invoked, the scroll can’t be used again. Its words fade, or it crumbles into dust.

Any creature that can understand a written language can read the arcane script on a scroll and attempt to activate it.

Copying a Spell Into a Spellbook

When you find a Wizard spell of 1st level or higher, a wizard can add it to their spellbook if it is of a level for which they have spell slots and if they can spare the time to decipher and copy it. For each level of the spell, the process takes 2 hours and costs 50 gp.

Encounter Building

You can use this process after you’ve already designed an encounter to determine its difficulty or you can use it to start an encounter from scratch with a target difficulty in mind.

1. Determine XP Thresholds. First, determine the experience point (XP) thresholds for each character in the party. The XP Thresholds by Character Level table below has four XP thresholds for each character level, one for each category of encounter difficulty. Use a character’s level to determine his or her XP thresholds. Repeat this process for every character in the party.

2. Determine the Party’s XP Threshold. For each category of encounter difficulty, add up the characters’ XP thresholds. This determines the party’s XP threshold. You’ll end up with four totals, one for each category of encounter difficulty.

3. Total the Monsters’ XP. Add up the XP for all of the monsters in the encounter. Every monster has an XP value in its stat block.

4. Modify Total XP for Multiple Monsters. If the encounter includes more than one monster, apply a multiplier to the monsters’ total XP. The more monsters there are, the more attack rolls you’re making against the characters in a given round, and the more dangerous the encounter becomes. To correctly gauge an encounter’s difficulty, multiply the total XP of all the monsters in the encounter by the value given in the Encounter Multipliers table.

5. Compare XP. Compare the monsters’ adjusted XP value to the party’s XP thresholds. The threshold that equals the adjusted XP value determines the encounter’s difficulty. If there’s no match, use the closest threshold that is lower than the adjusted XP value.

XP Thresholds by Character Level

Character Level—– Encounter Difficulty —–
EasyMediumHardDeadly
1st255075100
2nd50100150200
3rd75150225400
4th125250375500
5th2505007501,100
6th3006009001,400
7th3507501,1001,700
8th4509001,4002,100
9th5501,1001,6002,400
10th6001,2001,9002,800
11th8001,6002,4003,600
12th1,0002,0003,0004,500
13th1,1002,2003,4005,100
14th1,2502,5003,8005,700
15th1,4002,8004,3006,400
16th1,6003,2004,8007,200
17th2,0003,9005,9008,800
18th2,1004,2006,3009,500
19th2,4004,9007,30010,900
20th2,8005,7008,50012,700

Encounter XP Multipliers

Number of MonstersMultiplier
1× 1
2× 1.5
3–6× 2
7–10× 2.5
11–14× 3
15 or more× 4

Monster Statistics by Challenge Rating

—— Defensive ————— Offensive ———
CRProf.
Bonus
XP ValueArmor ClassHit PointsAttack BonusDamage/
Round
Save DC
0+20 or 10≤ 131–6≤ +30–1≤ 13
1/8+225137–35+32–313
1/4+2501336–49+34–513
1/2+21001350–70+36–813
1+22001371–85+39–1413
2+24501386–100+315–2013
3+270013101–115+421–2613
4+21,10014116–130+527–3214
5+31,80015131–145+633–3815
6+32,30015146–160+639–4415
7+32,90015161–175+645–5015
8+33,90016176–190+751–5616
9+45,00016191–205+757–6216
10+45,90017206–220+763–6816
11+47,20017221–235+869–7417
12+48,40017236–250+875–8017
13+510,00018251–265+881–8618
14+511,50018266–280+887–9218
15+513,00018281–295+893–9818
16+515,00018296–310+999–10418
17+618,00019311–325+10105–11019
18+620,00019326–340+10111–11619
19+622,00019341–355+10117–12219
20+625,00019356–400+10123–14019
21+733,00019401–445+11141–15820
22+741,00019446–490+11159–17620
23+750,00019491–535+11177–19420
24+762,00019536–580+12195–21221
25+875,00019581–625+12213–23021
26+890,00019626–670+12231–24821
27+8105,00019671–715+13249–26622
28+8120,00019716–760+13267–28422
29+9135,00019761–805+13285–30222
30+9155,00019806–850+14303–32023

Size Categories and Hit Points

Monster SizeSpaceHit DieAverage HP per DieExamples
Tiny2 1/2 by 2 1/2 ft.d4Hawk, imp, rat, sprite
Small5 by 5 ft.d6Giant rat, goblin, kobold
Medium5 by 5 ft.d8Gnoll, orc, werewolf
Large10 by 10 ft.d10Chimera, hippogriff, ogre
Huge15 by 15 ft.d12Cyclops, fire giant, treant
Gargantuan20+ by 20+ ft.d2010½Ancient red dragon, kraken

Random Encounters

AreaRoll 1d20…
Dangerous overworld area
  • Once per hour of travel.
  • Once per 20 minutes of Rest during the day.
  • Once at night.
Encounter on: 18-20 or 19-20
Uncivilized, unsettled, or unknown overworld area
  • Once During the day.
  • Once per 20 minutes of Rest during the day.
  • Once at night.
Encounter on: 17-20 or 18-20
Well-Traveled overworld area
  • Once a day-night cycle
Encounter on: 20
Structure or formation populated by hostiles
  • Once per 15 minutes of rest or idle
Encounter on: 17-20 or 18-20

Random Tables

Quick Find

d12Find
1Artwork
2Body
3Food or drink
4Jewelry
5Key
6Letter
7Magic herbs
8Map
9Monster parts
10Secret message
11Signet or insignia
12Tome

Something Happened

d20Event
1A door opens
2A fire starts
3A meteor shoots across the sky
4A monster appears
5A screech pierces the air
6A storm begins
7A strange star appears in the sky
8A strong gust of wind blows through
9A tremor shakes the ground
10Someone experiences déjà vu
11Someone gets angry
12Someone glimpses the future
13Someone has a sense of foreboding
14Someone has to go to the bathroom
15Something spills or falls to the ground
16Something isn’t where it’s supposed to be
17The lights go out
18The sun comes out
19There’s a foul smell in the air
20Unexplained magic occurs

Traps

Trap Trigger
d6Trigger
1Stepped on (floor, stairs)
2Moved through (doorway, hallway)
3Touched (doorknob, statue)
4Opened (door, treasure chest)
5Looked at (mural, arcane symbol)
6Moved
Trap Severity
d6Severity
1-2Setback
3-5Dangerous
6Deadly
Trap Effect
d100Effect
01-04Magic missile shoots from a statue or object
05-07Collapsing staircase creates a ramp that deposits characters into a pit at its lower end`
08-10Ceiling block falls, or entire ceiling collapses
11-12Ceiling lowers slowly into locked room
13-14Chute opens in floor
15-16Clanging noise attracts nearby monsters
17-19Touching an object triggers a disintegrate spell
20-23Door or other object is coated with contact poison
24-27Fire shoots out from wall, floor, or object
28-30Touching an object triggers a flesh to stone spell
31-33Floor collapses or is an illusion
34-36Vent releases gas: blinding, acidic, obscuring, paralyzing, poisonous, or sleep-inducing
37-39Floor tiles are electrified
40-43Glyph of warding
44-46Huge wheeled statue rolls down corridor
47-49Lightning bolt shoots from wall or object
50-52Locked room floods with water or acid
53-56Darts shoot out of an opened chest
57-59A weapon, suit of armor, or rug animates and attacks when touched (see “Animated objects” in the Monster Manual)
60-62Pendulum, either bladed or weighted as a maul, swings across the room or hall
63-67Hidden pit opens beneath characters (25% chance that a black pudding or gelatinous cube fills the bottom of the pit)
68-70Hidden pit floods with acid or fire
71-73Locking pit floods with water
74-77Scything blade emerges from wall or object
78-81Spears (possibly poisoned) spring out
82-84Brittle stairs collapse over spikes
85-88Thunderwave knocks characters into a pit or spikes
89-91Steel or stone jaws restrain a character
92-94Stone block smashes across hallway
95-97Symbol
98-00Walls slide together

Tricks

Trick Objects
d20Object
1Book
2Brain preserved in a jar
3Burning fire
4Cracked gem
5Door
6Fresco
7Furniture
8Glass sculpture
9Mushroom field
10Painting
11Plant or tree
12Pool of water
13Runes engraved on wall or floor
14Skull
15Sphere of magical energy
16Statue
17Stone Obelisk
18Suit of armor
19Tapestry or Rug
20Target Dummy
Trick Effect
d100Trick Effect
01-06Ages the first person to touch the object
04-06The touched object animates, or it animates other objects nearby
07-10Asks three skill-testing questions (if all three are answered correctly a reward appears)
11-13Bestows resistances or vulnerability
14-16Changes a character’s alignment, personality, size, appearance, or sex when touched
17-19Changes one substance into another, such as gold to lead or metal to brittle crystal
20-22Creates a force field
23-26Creates an illusion
27-29Suppresses magic items for a time
30-32Enlarges or reduces characters
33-35Magic mouth speaks a riddle
36-38Confusion (targets all creatures within 10 ft.)
39-41Gives directions (true or false)
42-44Grants a wish
45-47Flies about to avoid being touched
48-50Casts geas on the characters
51-53Increases, reduces, negates, or reverses gravity
54-56Induces greed
57-59Contains an imprisoned creature
60-62Locks or unlocks exits
63-65Offers a game of chance, with the promise of a reward or valuable information
66-68Helps or harms certain types of creatures
69-71Casts polymorph on the characters (lasts 1 hour)
72-75Presents a puzzle or riddle
76-78Prevents movement
79-81Releases coins, false coins, gems, false gems, a magic item, or a map
82-84Releases, summons, or turns into a monster
85-87Casts suggestion on the characters
88-90Wails loudly when touched
91-93Talks (normal speech, nonsense, poetry and rhymes, singing, spellcasting, or screaming)
94-97Teleports characters to another place
98-00Swaps two or more character’s minds

Madness

Short-Term Madness

d100Effect (lasts 1d10 minutes)
01–20The character retreats into his or her mind and becomes paralyzed. The effect ends if the character takes any damage.
21–30The character becomes incapacitated and spends the duration screaming, laughing, or weeping.
31–40The character becomes frightened and must use his or her action and movement each round to flee from the source of the fear.
41–50The character begins babbling and is incapable of normal speech or spellcasting.
51–60The character must use his or her action each round to attack the nearest creature.
61–70The character experiences vivid hallucinations and has disadvantage on ability checks.
71–75The character does whatever anyone tells him or her to do that isn’t obviously self-destructive.
76–80The character experiences an overpowering urge to eat something strange such as dirt, slime, or offal.
81–90The character is stunned.
91–100The character falls unconscious.

Long-Term Madness

d100Effect (lasts 1d10 × 10 hours)
01–10The character feels compelled to repeat a specific activity over and over, such as washing hands, touching things, praying, or counting coins.
11–20The character experiences vivid hallucinations and has disadvantage on ability checks.
21–30The character suffers extreme paranoia. The character has disadvantage on Wisdom and Charisma checks.
31–40The character regards something (usually the source of madness) with intense revulsion, as if affected by the antipathy effect of the antipathy/sympathy spell.
41–45The character experiences a powerful delusion. Choose a potion. The character imagines that he or she is under its effects.
46–55The character becomes attached to a “lucky charm,” such as a person or an object, and has disadvantage on attack rolls, ability checks, and saving throws while more than 30 feet from it.
56–65The character is blinded (25%) or deafened (75%).
66–75The character experiences uncontrollable tremors or tics, which impose disadvantage on attack rolls, ability checks, and saving throws that involve Strength or Dexterity.
76–85The character suffers from partial amnesia. The character knows who he or she is and retains racial traits and class features, but doesn’t recognize other people or remember anything that happened before the madness took effect.
86–90Whenever the character takes damage, he or she must succeed on a DC 15 Wisdom saving throw or be affected as though he or she failed a saving throw against the confusion spell. The confusion effect lasts for 1 minute.
91–95The character loses the ability to speak.
96–100The character falls unconscious. No amount of jostling or damage can wake the character.

Indefinite Madness

d100Flaw (lasts until cured)
01–15“Being drunk keeps me sane.”
16–25“I keep whatever I find.”
26–30“I try to become more like someone else I know — adopting his or her style of dress, mannerisms, and name.”
31–35“I must bend the truth, exaggerate, or outright lie to be interesting to other people.”
36–45“Achieving my goal is the only thing of interest to me, and I’ll ignore everything else to pursue it.”
46–50“I find it hard to care about anything that goes on around me.”
51–55“I don’t like the way people judge me all the time.”
56–70“I am the smartest, wisest, strongest, fastest, and most beautiful person I know.”
71–80“I am convinced that powerful enemies are hunting me, and their agents are everywhere I go. I am sure they’re watching me all the time.”
81–85“There’s only one person I can trust. And only I can see this special friend.”
86–95“I can’t take anything seriously. The more serious the situation, the funnier I find it.”
96–100“I’ve discovered that I really like killing people.”