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Never split the party.
NEVER SPLIT THE PARTY.

DM Screen

This digital DM screen has everything you need to run a game, with all of the most important rules available to quickly reference to keep the game running smoothly.

Name Generators

Abilities

Skill Checks

Ability Modifiers

Score Modifier Score Modifier
1 -5 16-17 +3
2-3 -4 18-19 +4
4-5 -3 20-21 +5
6-7 -2 22-23 +6
8-9 -1 24-25 +7
10-11 +0 26-27 +8
12-13 +1 28-29 +9
14-15 +2 30 +10

Skills

Ability Score Associated Skills
Strength Athletics
Dexterity Acrobatics, Sleight of Hand, Stealth
Constitution N/A (See Con Table)
Intelligence Arcana, History, Investigation, Nature, Religion
Wisdom Animal Handling, Insight, Medicine, Perception, Survival
Charisma Deception, Intimidation, Performance, Persuasion

Difficulty Classes

Task Difficulty DC
Trivial 5
Easy 10
Moderate 15
Hard 20
Very Hard 25
Nearly Impossible 30

Strength

Strength measures bodily power and athletic training.

Strength Used For… Rule
Score Determines modifier Refer to this chart
Carrying Capacity Strength score times 15 in pounds1
Push, Drag, or Lift Up to 2 times carrying capacity2
Modifier Determines bonus to strength related rolls Refer to this chart
Save Opposing a force that would physically move or bind you 1d20 + STR mod + Proficiency (if proficient)
Strength Check Any attempt to lift, push, pull, or break something, to force your body through a space, or to otherwise apply brute force to a situation. 1d20 + STR mod
Breaking Manacles DC 20 check
Breaking Rope DC 17 check
Other possible uses Force open a stuck, locked, or barred door. Push through a tunnel that is too small. Hang on to a wagon while being dragged behind it. Tip over a statue. Keep a builder from rolling.

1 For each size category above medium, double the creatures carrying capacity and the amount it can pull, drag, or lift. For a tiny creature, half these weights.

2 While pushing or dragging weight in excess of your carrying capacity, your speed drops to 5 feet.

Strength Skills

Athletics
Automatic Climb a wall with plenty of handholds or a secure, knotted rope or rope ladder; swim in relatively calm water; jump a number of feet horizontally equal to half of your Strength score, or your full Strength score with a 10 foot running start; leap into the air a number of feet equal to half of (3 + your Strength modifier), or the full amount with a 10 foot running start 1 2
Easy Climb a wall lacking an adequate amount of handholds, tread water in rough conditions, jump a few feet farther than you normally could; during a long jump, clear an obstacle such as a low-lying hedge or wall of height ≤a fourth of the jump’s distance
Moderate Climb a rope dangling from a protrusion or overhang (i.e. lacking a vertical surface to brace against), swim in rough water or against a mild current
Hard Climb a wall with very few handholds, catch yourself on a rope or other handhold in the middle or at the end of your jump, swim in violent water or against a strong current
Very Hard Climb a slippery or sheer wall with little or no handholds, climb vertically along an overhang with adequate handholds, swim in stormy waters
Feats of Strength – Other
Easy Force open a stuck or broken door, break free from weak bindings, pull a stuck or wedged object loose
Moderate Break through a wooden door reinforced with iron, hang on to a wagon while being dragged behind it
Hard Break through a heavy locked or barred door, topple a stone statue
Very Hard Break through a heavy, reinforced door such as a prison or armory door, hold a door shut against a room filling with water

1 A PC can climb and swim under normal conditions without having to make a check; however, strenuous conditions may require that they pass an Athletics check. Each foot of movement during such a check costs an extra foot of movement, or an extra 2 feet if it is considered difficult terrain. Characters with climb and swim speeds ignore the extra costs associated with movement of this type. Similarly, the horizontal and vertical distance a PC can jump without having to make a check is determined by their Strength score and modifier respectively. An Athletics check is generally only required when attempting to jump a distance farther than the amount calculate in the table above.

2 During a vertical jump a PC can extend their arms in order to achieve an extra distance equal to 1⁄2 of their height, which they can effectively add to their jump distance in order to attempt to grab on to a ledge or other handhold.

Dexterity

Dexterity measures agility, reflexes, and balance.

Dexterity Used For… Rule
Score Determines modifier Refer to this chart
Modifier Determines bonus to Dexterity related rolls Refer to this chart
Armor Class Certain types of armor add all or some of your DEX mod to your AC
Initiative 1d20 + DEX mod
Save Dodging out of harm’s way 1d20 + DEX mod + Proficiency (if proficient)
Dexterity Check Any attempt to move nimbly, quickly, or quietly, or to keep from falling on tricky footing 1d20 + DEX mod
Lock picking (with thieves tools) 1d20 + DEX mod + Proficiency (if proficient)
Other possible uses Control a heavily laden cart on a steep descent. Steer a chariot around a tight turn. Disable a trap. Securely tie up a prisoner. Wriggle free of bonds. Craft a small or detailed object.

Dexterity Skills

Acrobatics
Easy Walk across an icy surface, stay upright in a turbulent situation, land safely on difficult terrain
Moderate Walk along a narrow ledge, swing from a chandelier and land on your feet
Hard Cross a wildly swaying rope bridge
Very Hard Walk across a tightrope, vault over or under an enemy (through their space)
Sleight of Hand
Easy Perform simple acts of legerdemain such as palming a coin-sized object
Contest (Perception) Plant or steal an object on or from a target, conceal an object on your person
Stealth
Contest (Perception) Conceal yourself from enemies1 2, sneak past unsuspecting targets, slip away while others are distracted
Pick Lock – Disarm Trap – Other
Easy Pick a simple lock, jam a simple trap3, perform a task requiring particularly dexterous hands
Moderate Pick a typical lock3, escape from tight rope bindings, securely restrain a prisoner
Hard Pick an elaborate lock, disarm a trap of average complexity3, steer a chariot around a tight corner
Very Hard Pick a masterwork lock, disarm a complex trap3, escape from locked masterwork manacles

1 Generally, becoming hidden in combat requires being heavily obscured or under total cover, but ultimately the rules leave it up to your personal adjudication.
² Certain types of medium and heavy armor add disadvantage to this roll.

3 Proficiency with Thieves’ Tools allows a player to add their proficiency bonus to checks made to open locks and disarm traps.

Constitution

Constitution measures health, stamina, and vital force.

Constitution Used For… Rule
Score Determines Constitution modifier Refer to this chart
Modifier Determines bonus to constitution related rolls Refer to this chart
Holding your breath Survive for minutes equal to 1 + CON mod (minimum 30 seconds), then survives for rounds equal to CON mod. Next turn drops to 0 HP and is dying.
Going without food Can go without enough food for days equal to 3 + CON mod. Each day past limit gain 1 level of exhaustion.
Determining Hit Points CON mod added to HP at each level
Using Hit Dice CON mod added to each hit dice used during short rest
Save Endures a disease, poison, or other hazard that saps vitality 1d20 + CON mod + Proficiency (if proficient)
Concentration DC equal to greater of 10 or ½ of damage taken while concentrating on a spell
Going without enough water DC 15 or gain 1 level of exhaustion.
Check Very rarely used, but can be used to push yourself beyond normal limits
Other possible uses Quaff an entire stein of ale in one go.

Constitution Skills

There are no skills associated with Constitution.1

Concentration
Easy Distracting environmental stimuli such as a wave crashing over the deck of a storm-tossed ship
Variable DC After taking damage make a Constitution Saving throw with a DC of either 10 or half of the damage taken, whichever is higher.
Forced March
Variable DC At the end of each hour a PC must make a Constitution saving throw with a DC equal to 10 + the number of hours traveled past 8. On a failed throw the PC advances one level of exhaustion.
Air Requirements
A PC can hold their breath for a number of minutes equal to 1 + their Constitution modifier (minimum 30 seconds). When out of breath, a PC can survive for a number of rounds equal to their Constitution modifier before they drop to 0 hit points and begin to die.
Food Requirements
A PC must eat one pound of food per day in order to subsist. They can go without food for a number of days equal to 3 + their Constitution modifier (minimum 1) before they begin to starve. This day count is reset when the PC eats their fill for a day; otherwise, the PC advances one level of exhaustion at the end of each day beyond their limit.
Water Requirements
Automatic A PC drinking less than half the amount of water they require during the day advances one level of exhaustion at the end of the day, or two levels if they are already suffering from exhaustion.
Moderate A PC drinking more than half the amount of water they require during the day but less than the full amount must succeed on a Constitution saving throw or advance one level of exhaustion, or two levels if they are already suffering from exhaustion.

1 Constitution represents a largely passive set of ‘skills’ which have more to do with enduring than performing a specific action the PC can become proficient in. Therefore, Constitution checks are more uncommon than other ability checks and are usually made without adding a proficiency bonus, although situational bonuses may still apply.
NOTE: An ability check is different from a saving throw; players can be proficient at Constitution saving throws.
2 A PC can only travel for eight hours a day before they risk becoming exhausted.
3 A PC requires one gallon of water per day, or two if the climate is harsh.

Intelligence

Intelligence measures mental acuity, accuracy of recall, and the ability to reason.

Intelligence Used For… Rule
Score Determines modifier Refer to this chart
Modifier Determines bonus to Intelligence related rolls Refer to this chart
Save Disbelieving certain illusions and resisting mental assaults that can be refuted with logic, sharp memory, or both 1d20 + Ability mod + Proficiency (if proficient)
Check Drawing on logic, education, memory, or deductive reasoning 1d20 + INT mod
Other possible uses Communicate with a creature without words. Estimate the value of a precious item. Forge a document. Recall lore about a craft or trade. Win a game of skill.

Intelligence Skills

Arcana – History – Nature – Religion
Easy Recall widely known information; identify common people, places, objects, symbols, fauna, or flora
Moderate Recall more obscure or specific information; identify uncommon people, places, objects, symbols, fauna, or flora
Hard Recall truly esoteric or precise information; identify rare people, places, objects, symbols, fauna, or flora
Very Hard Recall information that is known only by a privileged few; identify exceedingly rare people, places, objects, symbols, fauna, or flora
Investigation – Other
Easy Identify a particularly obvious trap or a secret or coded message left by a contact, communicate a simple idea with an intelligent creature you don’t share a language with, discover the true nature of a low-level illusion.
Moderate Identify a typical trap, determine time or cause of death of a recently deceased creature, estimate the material worth of an item, discover the true nature of a mid-level illusion
Hard Identify a well-hidden trap, object, or area; forge a document or identify such a document, discover the true nature of a high-level illusion
Very Hard Identify a magically-hidden trap, object, or area; discern the purpose and process of a complicated device or system; determine the integrity of a structure, construct, or formation and identify any exploitable weak points

Wisdom

Wisdom measures perceptiveness, intuition, and attunement with the surrounding world.

Wisdom Used For… Rule
Score Determines modifier Refer to this chart
Modifier Determines bonus to Wisdom related rolls Refer to this chart
Save Resisting effects that charm, frighten, or otherwise assault your willpower 1d20 + WIS mod + Proficiency (if proficient)
Check Reading body language, understanding someone’s feelings, noticing things about the environment, or caring for an injured person 1d20 + WIS mod
Other possible uses Get a gut feeling about what course of action to follow. Discern whether a seemingly dead or living creature is undead.

Wisdom Skills

Insight
Easy Determine if a child is telling the truth
Moderate Discern who among a cagey group is the leader, discern the intended message of a non-verbal communication
Hard Guess at the enemy’s next action
Very Hard
Contest (Deception) Determine if someone is lying or disguising themselves or their intentions
Perception
Easy Spot a prominent landmark or structure in the distance, hear the far-off sound of thunder signaling a coming storm
Moderate Spot a natural-obscured object or feature, eavesdrop on a conversation in the next room
Hard Spot a well-hidden object or feature, eavesdrop on a hushed conversation through a heavy door
Very Hard Spot a nearly-invisible object or feature, read the lips of a creature you can see but not hear
Contest (Stealth) Spot a creature attempting to hide, hear the movements of a hidden foe
Survival
Easy Follow a well-worn trail through a forest, follow the tracks of a creature through snow or mud, forage for a day’s worth of food in a plentiful area, navigate on a clear night
Moderate Follow an abandoned or forgotten trail, track a creature through a forest, forage for a day’s worth of food in a sparse area, navigate on a cloudy night, predict an oncoming storm, identify the signs of nearby creatures
Hard Track a creature over barren terrain, forage for a day’s worth of food in a harsh area, navigate through an alien area on a cloudy night, predict tomorrow’s weather
Very Hard Track a creature after rainfall, navigate an alien area on a stormy night
Animal Handling – Medicine – Other
Easy Calm a domesticated animal, stabilize a dying creature outside of combat, diagnose a common ailment
Moderate Calm a wild but otherwise peaceful animal, intuit an animal’s emotional state, set a broken bone, perform a complex maneuver while mounted, stabilize a dying creature in the middle of combat, diagnose an uncommon ailment
Hard Intuit a hostile animal’s next action, control an untrained mount, diagnose a rare ailment
Very Hard Calm a dangerous wild animal, diagnose magical and divine ailments

Charisma

Charisma measures force of personality, persuasiveness, personal magnetism, social influence, and physical attractiveness.

Charisma Used For… Rule
Score Determines modifier Refer to this chart
Modifier Determines bonus to Charisma related rolls Refer to this chart
Save Withstanding effects, such as possession, that would subsume your personality or hurl you to another plane of existence 1d20 + WIS mod + Proficiency (if proficient)
Check Trying to influence or entertain others, when you try to make an impression or tell a convincing lie, or when you are navigating a tricky social situation 1d20 + Ability mod
Other possible uses Find the best person to talk to for news and gossip. Blend into a crowd to get the sense of key topics of conversation.

Charisma Skills

Deception
Contest (Insight) Fast-talk or con someone, adopt a disguise or impersonate another creature, tell a convincing lie or otherwise hide your true intentions
Intimidation
Easy Scare a spineless noble in to handing over their coin purse
Moderate Pry information out of an uncooperative prisoner, convince street thugs to back down from a confrontation
Hard Advise a guard that it might be best to look the other way this time around, coerce an official in to signing a document
Very Hard Frighten a creature larger than you, causing it to flee; stop an agitated mob in their tracks
Performance
Easy Routine performance such as telling a story in a tavern or around a campfire
Moderate Professional performance such as an inspiring speech or an impressive musical display which may attract the attention of a local troupe and lead to regional fame
Hard Memorable performance which may attract the attention of a local patron and lead to national fame
Very Hard Extraordinary performance which may attract the attention of distant patrons and even extraplanar beings
Persuasion
Easy Convince the mayor to allow your party to help, calm a distraught person
Moderate Persuade a group of highway thieves to leave in peace, convince a friendly acquaintance that you know best
Hard Convince a chamberlain to let your party see the king, inspire or rally a crown of townsfolk, negotiate a peace between warring tribes
Very Hard Convince a sphinx that you are worthy of the secrets it guards, assure a dragon you’re worth more alive than dead

Adventuring

Character Advancement

Experience Points Level Proficiency Bonus
0
300
900
2,700
1
2
3
4
+2
+2
+2
+2
6,500
14,000
23,000
34,000
48,000
64,000
5
6
7
8
9
10
+3
+3
+3
+3
+4
+4
85,000
100,000
120,000
140,000
165,000
195,000
11
12
13
14
15
16
+4
+4
+5
+5
+5
+5
225,000
265,000
305,000
355,000
17
18
19
20
+6
+6
+6
+6

Travel and Movement

Travel Pace

Pace Distance per Minute Distance per Hour Distance per day Effect
Fast 400 feet 4 miles 30 miles -5 penalty to passive Wisdom (Perception) scores
Normal 300 feet 3 miles 24 miles
Slow 200 feet 2 miles 18 miles Able to use stealth

Forced March. For each additional hour of travel beyond 8 hours, the characters cover the distance shown in the Hour column for their pace, and each character must make a Constitution saving throw at the end of the hour. The DC is 10 + 1 for each hour past 8 hours. On a failed saving throw, a character suffers one level of exhaustion.

Mounts and Vehicles. A mounted character can ride at a gallop for about an hour, covering twice the usual distance for a fast pace. If fresh mounts are available every 8 to 10 miles, characters can cover larger distances at this pace, but this is very rare except in densely populated areas.

Characters in wagons, carriages, or other land vehicles choose a pace as normal. Characters in a waterborne vessel are limited to the speed of the vessel, and they don’t suffer penalties for a fast pace or gain benefits from a slow pace. Depending on the vessel and the size of the crew, ships might be able to travel for up to 24 hours per day.

Map Travel Pace
Map Scale Slow Pace Normal Pace Fast Pace
Dungeon
(1 sq. = 10 ft.)
20 sq./min. 30 sq./min. 40 sq./min.
City
(1 sq. = 100 ft.)
2 sq./min. 3 sq./min. 4 sq./min.
Province
(1 hex = 1 mi.)
2 hexes/hr., 18 hexes/day 3 hexes/hr., 24 hexes/day 4 hexes/hr., 30 hexes/day
Kingdom
(1 hex = 6 mi.)
1 hex/3 hr., 3 hexes/day 1 hex/2 hr., 4 hexes/day 1 hex/1½ hr., 5 hexes/day
Special Travel Pace
  • In 1 minute, you can move a number of feet equal to your speed times 10.
  • In 1 hour, you can move a number of miles equal to your speed divided by 10.
  • For daily travel, multiply your hourly rate of travel by the number of hours traveled (typically 8 hours).
  • For a fast pace, increase the rate of travel by one-third.
  • For a slow pace, multiply the rate by two-thirds.

Difficult Terrain

You move at half speed in difficult terrain (dense forests, deep swamps, rubble-filled ruins, steep mountains, and ice-covered ground)–moving 1 foot in difficult terrain costs 2 feet of speed.

Squeezing Into a Smaller Space

A creature can squeeze through a space that is large enough for a creature one size smaller than it. Thus, a Large creature can squeeze through a passage that’s only 5 feet wide. While squeezing through a space, a creature must spend 1 extra foot for every foot it moves there, and it has disadvantage on attack rolls and Dexterity saving throws. Attack rolls against the creature have advantage while it’s in the smaller space.

Climbing, Swimming, Crawling

Each foot of movement costs 1 extra foot (2 extra in difficult terrain), unless a creature has a climbing or swimming speed. At the DM’s option, difficult surfaces or currents may require a successful STR (Athletics) check.

Jumping

Long Jump

You cover a number of feet up to your Strength score if you move at least 10 feet on foot immediately before the jump. When you make a standing long jump, you can leap only half that distance. Either way, each foot you clear on the jump costs a foot of movement.

At your DM’s option, you must succeed on a DC 10 Strength (Athletics) check to clear a low obstacle (no taller than a quarter of the jump’s distance), such as a hedge or low wall. Otherwise, you hit it.

When you land in difficult terrain, you must succeed on a DC 10 Dexterity (Acrobatics) check to land on your feet. Otherwise, you land prone.

High Jump

You leap into the air a number of feet equal to 3 + your Strength modifier (minimum of 0 feet) if you move at least 10 feet on foot immediately before the jump. When you make a standing high jump, you can jump only half that distance. Either way, each foot you clear on the jump costs a foot of movement. In some circumstances, your DM might allow you to make a Strength (Athletics) check to jump higher than you normally can.

You can extend your arms half your height above yourself during the jump. Thus, you can reach above you a distance equal to the height of the jump plus 1 1/2 times your height.

Activity While Traveling

These characters don’t contribute their passive Wisdom (Perception) scores to the group’s chance of noticing hidden threats.

Navigate. The character can try to prevent the group from becoming lost, making a Wisdom (Survival) check when the DM calls for it.

Draw a Map. The character can draw a map that records the group’s progress and helps the characters get back on course if they get lost. No ability check is required.

Track. A character can follow the tracks of another creature, making a Wisdom (Survival) check when the DM calls for it.

Forage. The character can keep an eye out for ready sources of food and water, making a Wisdom (Survival) check when the DM calls for it.

Tracking

Ground Surface DC
Soft surface such as snow or sand 10
Dirt or grass 15
Bare stone 20
Each day since the creature passed +5
Creature left a trail such as blood -5

Foraging

Food and Water Availability Survival DC
Abundant food and water 10
Limited food and water sources 15
Very little, if any, food and water sources 20

If multiple characters forage, each character makes a separate check. A foraging character finds nothing on a failure. On a successful check, roll 1d6 + Wisdom modifier to determine how much food (in pounds) and water (in galloons) the character finds. Make a separate roll for food and water.

Encounter Distances

Terrain Encounter Distance
Arctic, desert, farmland, or grassland 6d6 x 10 feet
Forest, swamp, or woodland 2d8 x 10 feet
Hills or wastelands 2d10 x 10 feet
Jungle 2d6 x 10 feet
Mountains 4d10 x 10 feet
Audible Distance
Trying to be quiet 2d6 x 5 feet
Normal noise level 2d6 x 10 feet
Very loud 2d6 x 50 feet
Outdoor Visibility
Clear day, no obstructions 2 miles
Rain 1 mile
Fog 100 to 300 feet
From a height x 20

Becoming Lost

The party’s navigator makes a Wisdom (Survival) check when you decide it’s appropriate, against a DC determined by the prevailing terrain, as shown on the Wilderness Navigation table. If the party is moving at a slow pace, the navigator gains a +5 bonus to the check, and a fast pace imposes a −5 penalty. If the party has an accurate map of the region or can see the sun or stars, the navigator has advantage on the check.

If the Wisdom (Survival) check succeeds, the party travels in the desired direction without becoming lost. If the check fails, the party inadvertently travels in the wrong direction and becomes lost. The party’s navigator can repeat the check after the party spends 1d6 hours trying to get back on course.

Wilderness Navigation
Terrain DC
Forest, jungle, swamp, mountains, or open sea with overcast skies and no land in sight 15
Arctic, desert, hills, or open sea with clear skies and no land in sight 10
Grassland, meadow, farmland 5

The Environment

Falling

At the end of a fall, a creature takes 1d6 bludgeoning damage for every 10 feet it fell, to a maximum of 20d6. The creature lands prone, unless it avoids taking damage from the fall.

Suffocating

A creature can hold its breath for a number of minutes equal to 1 + its Constitution modifier (minimum of 30 seconds).

When a creature runs out of breath or is choking, it can survive for a number of rounds equal to its Constitution modifier (minimum of 1 round). At the start of its next turn, it drops to 0 hit points and is dying, and it can’t regain hit points or be stabilized until it can breathe again.

Vision and Light

Bright light lets most creatures see normally. Even gloomy days provide bright light, as do torches, lanterns, fires, and other sources of illumination within a specific radius.

Dim light, also called shadows, creates a lightly obscured area. An area of dim light is usually a boundary between a source of bright light, such as a torch, and surrounding darkness. The soft light of twilight and dawn also counts as dim light. A particularly brilliant full moon might bathe the land in dim light.

Darkness creates a heavily obscured area. Characters face darkness outdoors at night (even most moonlit nights), within the confines of an unlit dungeon or a subterranean vault, or in an area of magical darkness.

Cover and Concealment

Cover

Cover Type Effect
1/2 cover +2 bonus to AC and Dexterity saving throws.
3/4 cover +5 bonus to AC and Dexterity saving throws.
Full cover Can’t be targeted by an attack or a spell, although area of effect spells and abilities are still effective.

Concealment

Hindrance Examples
Lightly Obscured Disadvantage on Perception checks relying on sight Dim light, patchy fog, moderate foliage
Heavily Obscured Blinded condition Darkness, opaque fog, dense foliage
Mundane Light Sources
Source Bright Light Dim Light Duration
Candle 5 feet +5 feet 6 hours
Lamp 15 feet +30 feet 6 hours
Lantern, bullseye 60 foot cone +60 feet 6 hours
Lantern, hooded
Lowered Hood
30 feet
+30 feet
+ 5 feet
6 hours
Torch 20 feet +20 feet 1 hour
Magic Light Sources
Source Bright Light Dim Light Duration
Continual Flame 20 feet +20 feet Until dispelled
Dancing Lights 10 feet 1 minute
Faerie Fire 10 feet 1 minute
Flame Blade 10 feet + 10 feet 10 minutes
Flaming Sphere 20 feet +20 feet 1 minute
Holy Aura 5 feet 1 minute
Light 20 feet +20 feet 1 hour
Moonbeam 5 ft cylinder 1 minute
Prismatic Wall 100 feet +100 feet 10 minutes
Wall of Fire 60 feet +60 feet 1 minute
Senses

Blindsight. Perceive surroundings without relying on sight.

Darkvision. See in darkness as if in dim light and cannot see colors.

Tremorsense. Detect and pinpoint the origin of vibrations within a specific radius, provided that the monster and the source of the vibrations are in contact with the same ground or substance.

Truesight. See in normal and magical darkness, see invisible creatures and objects, automatically detect visual illusions and succeed on saving throws against them, and perceives the original form of a shapechanger or a creature that is transformed by magic, as well as see into the Ethereal Plane.

Food and Water

Creature Size Food per Day Water per Day
Tiny 1/4 pound 1/4 gallon
Small 1 pound 1 gallon
Medium 1 pound 1 gallon
Large 4 pounds 4 gallons
Huge 16 pounds 16 gallons
Gargantuan 64 pounds 64 gallons
Food

A character needs one pound of food per day and can make food last longer by subsisting on half rations. Eating half a pound of food in a day counts as half a day without food.

A character can go without food for a number of days equal to 3 + his or her Constitution modifier (minimum 1). At the end of each day beyond that limit, a character automatically suffers one level of exhaustion. A normal day of eating resets the count of days without food to zero.

Water

A character needs one gallon of water per day, or two gallons per day if the weather is hot. A character who drinks only half that much water must succeed on a DC 15 Constitution saving throw or suffer one level of exhaustion at the end of the day. A character with access to even less water automatically suffers one level of exhaustion at the end of the day.

If the character already has one or more levels of exhaustion, the character takes two levels in either case.

Weather

d20 Temperature
1–14 Normal for the season
15–17 1d4 × 10 degrees Fahrenheit colder than normal
18–20 1d4 × 10 degrees Fahrenheit hotter than normal
d20 Wind
1–12 None
13–17 Light
18–20 Strong
d20 Precipitation
1–12 None
13–17 Light rain or light snowfall
18–20 Heavy rain or heavy snowfall
Extreme Heat

When the temperature is at or above 100 degrees Fahrenheit, a creature exposed to the heat and without access to drinkable water must succeed on a Constitution saving throw at the end of each hour or gain one level of exhaustion. The DC is 5 for the first hour and increases by 1 for each additional hour. Creatures wearing medium or heavy armor, or who are clad in heavy clothing, have disadvantage on the saving throw. Creatures with resistance or immunity to fire damage automatically succeed on the saving throw, as do creatures naturally adapted to hot climates.

Strong Wind

A strong wind imposes disadvantage on ranged weapon attack rolls and Wisdom (Perception) checks that rely on hearing. A strong wind also extinguishes open flames, disperses fog, and makes flying by nonmagical means nearly impossible. A flying creature in a strong wind must land at the end of its turn or fall.

A strong wind in a desert can create a sandstorm that imposes disadvantage on Wisdom (Perception) checks that rely on sight.

Heavy Precipitation

Everything within an area of heavy rain or heavy snowfall is lightly obscured, and creatures in the area have disadvantage on Wisdom (Perception) checks that rely on sight. Heavy rain also extinguishes open flames and imposes disadvantage on Wisdom (Perception) checks that rely on hearing.

Resting

Short Rest

  • A period of downtime lasting at least one hour, during which time you can do nothing more strenuous than eating, drinking, reading, or tending to wounds.
  • You regain the use of abilities, features, and resources that are refreshed by taking a Short Rest.
  • You are allowed to expend one of your accumulated Hit Die by rolling a die of the corresponding type. You regain hit points equal to the rolled value + your Constitution modifier. Afterwards, you may choose to spend another Hit Die.

Long Rest

  • A period of extended downtime lasting at least eight hours, during which time you must either sleep or perform only light activities such as talking, eating, or standing watch. These activities can occupy no more than 2 hours of your Long Rest. Performing more than an hour of strenuous activity such as walking or fighting will also interrupt your Long Rest. You may only benefit from one Long Rest in a 24-hour period and you must begin the rest with at least one hit point.
  • You regain the use of abilities, features, and resources that are refreshed by a long rest
  • You regain all of your lost hit points unless otherwise indicated.
  • You regain a number of Hit Die equal to up half of your total possible Hit Die.

Traps

Save DCs and Attack Bonus

Trap Danger Save DC Attack Bonus
Setback 10-11 +3 to +5
Dangerous 12-15 +6 to +8
Deadly 16-20 +9 to +12

Damage Severity and Level

Character Level Setback Dangerous Deadly
1st-4th 1d10 2d10 4d10
5th-10th 2d10 4d10 10d10
11th-16th 4d10 10d10 18d10
17th-20th 10d10 18d10 24d10

Improvising Damage

Dice Examples
1d10 Burned by coals, hit by a falling bookcase, pricked by a poison needle
2d10 Being struck by lightning, stumbling into a fire pit
4d10 Hit by falling rubble in a collapsing tunnel, stumbling into a vat of acid
10d10 Crushed by compacting walls, hit by whirling steel blades, wading through a lava stream
18d10 Being submerged in lava, being hit by a crashing flying fortress
24d10 Tumbling into a vortex of fire on the Elemental Plane of Fire, being crushed in the jaws of a godlike creature or a moon-sized monster

Languages

Standard Languages

Language Typical Speakers Script
Common Humans Common
Dwarvish Dwarves Dwarvish
Elvish Elves Elvish
Giant Ogres, giants Dwarvish
Gnomish Gnomes Dwarvish
Goblin Goblinoids Dwarvish
Halfling Halflings Common
Orc Orcs Dwarvish

Exotic Languages

Language Typical Speakers Script
Abyssal Demons Infernal
Celestial Celestials Celestial
Draconic Dragons, dragonborn Draconic
Deep Speech Mind Flayers, Beholders
Infernal Devils Infernal
Primordial Elementals Dwarvish
Sylvan Fey creatures Elvish
Undercommon Underdark traders Elvish

Objects

Object Armor Class

Substance AC Substance AC
Cloth, paper, rope 11 Iron, steel 19
Crystal, glass, ice 13 Mithral 21
Wood, bone 15 Adamantine 23
Stone 17

Object Hit Points

Size Fragile Resilient
Tiny (bottle, lock) 2 (1d4) 5 (2d4)
Small (chest, lute) 3 (1d6) 10 (3d6)
Medium (barrel, chandelier) 4 (1d8) 18 (4d8)
Large (cart, 10-ft.-by-10-ft. window) 5 (1d10) 27 (5d10)

Huge and Gargantuan Objects

If you track hit points for the object, divide it into Large or smaller sections, and track each section’s hit points separately. Destroying one of those sections could ruin the entire object.

Objects and Damage Types

Objects are immune to poison and psychic damage. You might decide that some damage types are more effective against a particular object or substance than others. For example, bludgeoning damage works well for smashing things but not for cutting through rope or leather. Paper or cloth objects might be vulnerable to fire and lightning damage. A pick can chip away stone but can’t effectively cut down a tree. As always, use your best judgment.

Damage Threshold

Big objects such as castle walls often have extra resilience represented by a damage threshold. An object with a damage threshold has immunity to all damage unless it takes an amount of damage from a single attack or effect equal to or greater than its damage threshold, in which case it takes damage as normal. Any damage that fails to meet or exceed the object’s damage threshold is considered superficial and doesn’t reduce the object’s hit points.

Object Armor Class

Object Hit Points

Stealth

When attempting to Hide, there are 4 simple rules to remember.

  1. If someone can see you, you can’t attempt to Hide from them.
  2. Someone doesn’t see you when they’re not looking at you.
  3. Once hidden, you can be detected via sight, hearing, or both, so don’t be seen or heard. If their Perception check or Passive Perception is higher than your Stealth roll, they detect you.
  4. You can hide in plain sight, given a moment of being unseen or unattended and an appropriate concealment strategy.

If you are hidden, or when someone can’t see you, you have advantage on attack rolls against them, and they have disadvantage on attack rolls against you. If you make an attack while hidden, regardless of whether it hits or misses, you are no longer hidden.

Combat

Surprise

The DM determines who might be surprised. If neither side tries to be stealthy, they automatically notice each other. Otherwise, the DM compares the Dexterity (Stealth) checks of anyone hiding with the passive Wisdom (Perception) score of each creature on the opposing side. Any character or monster that doesn’t notice a threat is surprised at the start of the encounter.

If you’re surprised, you can’t move or take an action on your first turn of the combat, and you can’t take a reaction until that turn ends. A member of a group can be surprised even if the other members aren’t.

Initiative

If a tie occurs, the DM decides the order among tied DM-controlled creatures, and the players decide the order among their tied characters. The DM can decide the order if the tie is between a monster and a player character. Optionally, the DM can have the tied characters and monsters each roll a d20 to determine the order, highest roll going first.

Activity On Your Turn

Activity Description
Movement During your turn, you can move a distance up to your speed. You can break up your movement, using a portion of your speed before or after other actions you take on your turn, including between attacks. Movement through difficult terrain is twice as difficult, costing you 2 feet of movement for every 1. Climbing, crawling, and swimming also cost 1 extra foot of movement for every 1 foot moved. See the Movement section for more details.
Interaction During your turn, you can communicate freely within the game (within reason). You can also interact with one object or feature for free as part of your movement or action. Examples can be found below.
Action Your Action represents a major part of your turn. You can only perform one Action per turn. The most common Action is the Attack action, but there are a variety of other options detailed in the table below. You can also choose to forego taking an Action on your turn, and instead choose to take the Dodge action or Ready an action for later in the round.
Bonus Action Your Bonus Action allows you to use various class features, spells, and other abilities that specifically state that they may be activated using a Bonus Action. You can only perform one Bonus Action per turn.
Reaction Your Reaction is an action that is made in response to a trigger of some kind and as such, it can be used when it is not your turn. Once you use your Reaction, you cannot use it again until the start of your next turn. Opportunity Attacks are the most common type of Reaction and are made when an enemy leaves your reach. Various class features, spells, and other abilities can also be used as a Reaction.

Movement and Position

On your turn, you can move a distance up to your speed. You can use as much or as little of your speed as you like on your turn, following the rules here.

Your movement can include jumping, climbing, and swimming. These different modes of movement can be combined with walking, or they can constitute your entire move. However you’re moving, you deduct the distance of each part of your move from your speed until it is used up or until you are done moving.

Moving Between Attacks

If you take an action that includes more than one weapon attack, you can break up your movement even further by moving between those attacks. For example, a fighter who can make two attacks with the Extra Attack feature and who has a speed of 25 feet could move 10 feet, make an attack, move 15 feet, and then attack again.

Using Different Speeds

If you have more than one speed, such as your walking speed and a flying speed, you can switch back and forth between your speeds during your move. Whenever you switch, subtract the distance you’ve already moved from the new speed. The result determines how much farther you can move. If the result is 0 or less, you can’t use the new speed during the current move.

Difficult Terrain

Every foot of movement in difficult terrain costs 1 extra foot. This rule is true even if multiple things in a space count as difficult terrain.

Low furniture, rubble, undergrowth, steep stairs, snow, and shallow bogs are examples of difficult terrain. The space of another creature, whether hostile or not, also counts as difficult terrain.

Being Prone

You can drop prone without using any of your speed. Standing up takes more effort; doing so costs an amount of movement equal to half your speed. For example, if your speed is 30 feet, you must spend 15 feet of movement to stand up. You can’t stand up if you don’t have enough movement left or if your speed is 0.

Moving Around Other Creatures

You can move through a nonhostile creature’s space. In contrast, you can move through a hostile creature’s space only if the creature is at least two sizes larger or smaller than you. Remember that another creature’s space is difficult terrain for you.

Whether a creature is a friend or an enemy, you can’t willingly end your move in its space.

If you leave a hostile creature’s reach during your move, you provoke an opportunity attack, as explained later in the section.

Flying Speed

Flying creatures enjoy many benefits of mobility, but they must also deal with the danger of falling. If a flying creature is knocked prone, has its speed reduced to 0, or is otherwise deprived of the ability to move, the creature falls, unless it has the ability to hover or it is being held aloft by magic, such as by the fly spell.

Creature Size

Size Space
Tiny 2 1/2 by 2 1/2 ft.
Small 5 by 5 ft.
Medium 5 by 5 ft.
Large 10 by 10 ft.
Huge 15 by 15 ft.
Gargantuan 20 by 20 ft. or larger

Squeezing Into a Smaller Space

A creature can squeeze through a space that is large enough for a creature one size smaller than it. Thus, a Large creature can squeeze through a passage that’s only 5 feet wide. While squeezing through a space, a creature must spend 1 extra foot for every foot it moves there, and it has disadvantage on attack rolls and Dexterity saving throws. Attack rolls against the creature have advantage while it’s in the smaller space.

Jumping, Climbing, Swimming

Climbing, Swimming, and Crawling

Each foot of movement costs 1 extra foot (2 extra in difficult terrain), unless a creature has a climbing or swimming speed. At the DM’s option, difficult surfaces or currents may require a successful STR (Athletics) check.

Long Jump

You cover a number of feet up to your Strength score if you move at least 10 feet on foot immediately before the jump. When you make a standing long jump, you can leap only half that distance. Either way, each foot you clear on the jump costs a foot of movement.

At your DM’s option, you must succeed on a DC 10 Strength (Athletics) check to clear a low obstacle (no taller than a quarter of the jump’s distance), such as a hedge or low wall. Otherwise, you hit it.

When you land in difficult terrain, you must succeed on a DC 10 Dexterity (Acrobatics) check to land on your feet. Otherwise, you land prone.

High Jump

You leap into the air a number of feet equal to 3 + your Strength modifier (minimum of 0 feet) if you move at least 10 feet on foot immediately before the jump. When you make a standing high jump, you can jump only half that distance. Either way, each foot you clear on the jump costs a foot of movement. In some circumstances, your DM might allow you to make a Strength (Athletics) check to jump higher than you normally can.

You can extend your arms half your height above yourself during the jump. Thus, you can reach above you a distance equal to the height of the jump plus 1 1/2 times your height.

Grid Movement

Entering a Square. To enter a square, you must have at least 1 square of movement left, even if the square is diagonally adjacent to the square you’re in.

If a square costs extra movement, as a square of difficult terrain does, you must have enough movement left to pay for entering it. For example, you must have at least 2 squares of movement left to enter a square of difficult terrain.

Corners. Diagonal movement can’t cross the corner of a wall, large tree, or other terrain feature that fills its space.

Ranges. To determine the range on a grid between two things— whether creatures or objects— start counting squares from a square adjacent to one of them and stop counting in the space of the other one. Count by the shortest route.

Actions In Combat

Action Description
Attack Make one¹ melee or ranged attack, a grapple, or a shove.
Cast a Spell Cast a spell with a casting time of 1 action.
Dash Gain extra movement equal to your speed for this turn, applying any modifiers.
Disengage Your movement doesn’t provoke opportunity attacks for the rest of the turn.
Dodge Until the start of your next turn, any attacks against you are made with disadvantage provided you can see the attacker, and you have advantage on DEX saves. You lose this benefit if you are incapacitated or your speed drops to 0.
Escape Grapple Make an Athletics or Acrobatics check contested by the grappler’s Athletics check to escape being grappled.
Grapple When you take the Attack action, forego one weapon attack to make an Athletics check contested by the target’s Athletics or Acrobatics check (their choice). If you succeed, your target is grappled.
Help Your target gains advantage on next ability check to perform the task you are assisting with, or help with attack roll if enemy is within 5 feet of you.
Hide You make a Stealth check.
Improvise Take an action not described here, providing your DM allows it. E.g. break down a door, intimidate foes.
Ready Prepare to do something when a specific trigger occurs. Details here.
Search Make either a Perception or Investigation check in an attempt to locate something.
Shove When you take the Attack action, forego one weapon attack to make an Athletics check contested by the target’s Athletics or Acrobatics check (their choice). If you succeed, you may choose to either knock your target prone or push it 5 feet away from you.
Stabilize Use a Healer’s Kit or make a Medicine check (DC 10) to cause a dying creature to become Stable.
Use an Object Interacting with a second object on your turn (the first is free), or a more complicated object.
Climb onto a Bigger Creature² Athletics or Acrobatics check opposed by creature’s Acrobatics check.
Disarm² Use an attack to make attack roll opposed by the target’s Athletics or Acrobatics check. Target has advantage if holding the item with 2 or more hands.
Mark² When you make a melee attack and hit, you can mark them. Your opportunity attacks against the creature have advantage and don’t expend your reaction, however, you may only make 1 attack in this manner.
Overrun² As an action or bonus action make Athletics check opposed by hostile target’s Athletics. If you win, you can move through the hostile target’s space once this turn.
Shove Aside² Use shove to push the target to the side rather than away.
Tumble² As an action or bonus action make Acrobatics check opposed by hostile target’s Acrobatics. If you win, you can move through the hostile target’s space once this turn.

¹ Certain features allow you to make more than one attack, grapple, or shove with this action.
² These actions are optional and can be found on pages 271-272 of the Dungeon Master’s Guide.

Interactions

Here are a few examples of the sorts of thing you can do in tandem with your movement and action:

  • draw or sheathe a sword
  • open or close a door
  • withdraw a potion from your backpack
  • pick up a dropped axe
  • take a bauble from a table
  • remove a ring from your finger
  • stuff some food into your mouth
  • plant a banner in the ground
  • fish a few coins from your belt pouch
  • drink all the ale in a flagon
  • throw a lever or a switch
  • pull a torch from a sconce
  • take a book from a shelf you can reach
  • extinguish a small flame
  • don a mask
  • pull the hood of your cloak up and over your head
  • put your ear to a door
  • kick a small stone
  • turn a key in a lock
  • tap the floor with a 10-foot pole
  • hand an item to another character

Readying an Action

You can take the Ready action on your turn, which lets you act using your reaction before the start of your next turn.

First, you decide what perceivable circumstance will trigger your reaction. Then, you choose the action you will take in response to that trigger, or you choose to move up to your speed in response to it. Examples include “If the cultist steps on the trapdoor, I’ll pull the lever that opens it,” and “If the goblin steps next to me, I move away.”

When the trigger occurs, you can either take your reaction right after the trigger finishes or ignore the trigger. Remember that you can take only one reaction per round.

When you ready a spell, you cast it as normal but hold its energy, which you release with your reaction when the trigger occurs. To be readied, a spell must have a casting time of 1 action, and holding onto the spell’s magic requires concentration. If your concentration is broken, the spell dissipates without taking effect.

Making an Attack

If there’s ever any question whether something you’re doing counts as an attack, the rule is simple: if you’re making an attack roll, you’re making an attack.

Unseen Attackers and Targets

When you attack a target that you can’t see, you have disadvantage on the attack roll. This is true whether you’re guessing the target’s location or you’re targeting a creature you can hear but not see. If the target isn’t in the location you targeted, you automatically miss, but the DM typically just says that the attack missed, not whether you guessed the target’s location correctly.

When a creature can’t see you, you have advantage on attack rolls against it. If you are hidden–both unseen and unheard–when you make an attack, you give away your location when the attack hits or misses.

Ranged Attacks

You can make ranged attacks only against targets within a specified range.

If a ranged attack, such as one made with a spell, has a single range, you can’t attack a target beyond this range.

Some ranged attacks, such as those made with a longbow or a shortbow, have two ranges. The smaller number is the normal range, and the larger number is the long range. Your attack roll has disadvantage when your target is beyond normal range, and you can’t attack a target beyond the long range.

Ranged Attacks in Close Combat

Aiming a ranged attack is more difficult when a foe is next to you. When you make a ranged attack with a weapon, a spell, or some other means, you have disadvantage on the attack roll if you are within 5 feet of a hostile creature who can see you and who isn’t incapacitated.

Melee Attacks

Unarmed Strike

Instead of using a weapon to make a melee weapon attack, you can use an unarmed strike: a punch, kick, head-butt, or similar forceful blow (none of which count as weapons). On a hit, an unarmed strike deals bludgeoning damage equal to 1 + your Strength modifier. You are proficient with your unarmed strikes.

Opportunity Attacks

You can make an opportunity attack when a hostile creature that you can see moves out of your reach. To make the opportunity attack, you use your reaction to make one melee attack against the provoking creature. The attack occurs right before the creature leaves your reach.

You can avoid provoking an opportunity attack by taking the Disengage action. You also don’t provoke an opportunity attack when you teleport or when someone or something moves you without using your movement, action, or reaction. For example, you don’t provoke an opportunity attack if an explosion hurls you out of a foe’s reach or if gravity causes you to fall past an enemy.

Two-Weapon Fighting

When you take the Attack action and attack with a light melee weapon that you’re holding in one hand, you can use a bonus action to attack with a different light melee weapon that you’re holding in the other hand. You don’t add your ability modifier to the damage of the bonus attack, unless that modifier is negative.

If either weapon has the thrown property, you can throw the weapon, instead of making a melee attack with it.

Improvised Weapons

An object that bears no resemblance to a weapon deals 1d4 damage (the DM assigns a damage type appropriate to the object).

If a character uses a ranged weapon to make a melee attack, or throws a melee weapon that does not have the thrown property, it also deals 1d4 damage.

An improvised thrown weapon has a normal range of 20 feet and a long range of 60 feet.

In many cases, an improvised weapon is similar to an actual weapon and can be treated as such. For example, a table leg is akin to a club. At the DM ’s option, a character proficient with a weapon can use a similar object as if it w ere that weapon and use his or her proficiency bonus

Handling Mobs

Instead of rolling an attack roll, determine the minimum d20 roll a creature needs in order to hit a target by subtracting its attack bonus from the target’s AC. You’ll need to refer to the result throughout the battle, so it’s best to write it down.

Look up the minimum d20 roll needed on the Mob Attacks table. The table shows you how many creatures that need that die roll or higher must attack a target in order for one of them to hit. If that many creatures attack the target, their combined efforts result in one of them hitting the target.

For example, eight orcs surround a fighter. The orcs’ attack bonus is +5, and the fighter’s AC is 19. The orcs need a 14 or higher to hit the fighter. According to the table, for every three orcs that attack the fighter, one of them hits. There are enough orcs for two groups of three. The remaining two orcs fail to hit the fighter.

If the attacking creatures deal different amounts of damage, assume that the creature that deals the most damage is the one that hits. If the creature that hits has multiple attacks with the same attack bonus, assume that it hits once with each of those attacks. If a creature’s attacks have different attack bonuses, resolve each attack separately.

d20 Roll Needed Attackers Needed for One to Hit
1–5 1
6–12 2
13–14 3
15–16 4
17–18 5
19 10
20 20

Mounted Combat

A willing creature that is at least one size larger than you and that has an appropriate anatomy can serve as a mount, using the following rules.

Mounting and Dismounting

Once during your move, you can mount a creature that is within 5 feet of you or dismount. Doing so costs an amount of movement equal to half your speed. For example, if your speed is 30 feet, you must spend 15 feet of movement to mount a horse. Therefore, you can’t mount it if you don’t have 15 feet of movement left or if your speed is 0.

If an effect moves your mount against its will while you’re on it, you must succeed on a DC 10 Dexterity saving throw or fall off the mount, landing prone in a space within 5 feet of it. If you’re knocked prone while mounted, you must make the same saving throw.

If your mount is knocked prone, you can use your reaction to dismount it as it falls and land on your feet. Otherwise, you are dismounted and fall prone in a space within 5 feet it.

Controlling a Mount

While you’re mounted, you have two options. You can either control the mount or allow it to act independently. Intelligent creatures, such as dragons, act independently.

You can control a mount only if it has been trained to accept a rider. Domesticated horses, donkeys, and similar creatures are assumed to have such training. The initiative of a controlled mount changes to match yours when you mount it. It moves as you direct it, and it has only three action options: Dash, Disengage, and Dodge. A controlled mount can move and act even on the turn that you mount it.

An independent mount retains its place in the initiative order. Bearing a rider puts no restrictions on the actions the mount can take, and it moves and acts as it wishes. It might flee from combat, rush to attack and devour a badly injured foe, or otherwise act against your wishes.

In either case, if the mount provokes an opportunity attack while you’re on it, the attacker can target you or the mount.

Grappling and Shoving

You can use the Attack action to make a special melee attack, a grapple. If you’re able to make multiple attacks with the Attack action, this attack replaces one of them.

Grappling

The target of your grapple must be no more than one size larger than you and within your reach. Using at least one free hand, you try to seize the target by making a grapple check instead of an attack roll: a Strength (Athletics) check contested by the target’s Strength (Athletics) or Dexterity (Acrobatics) check (the target chooses the ability to use). You succeed automatically if the target is incapacitated. If you succeed, the target is grappled and you can release it whenever you like (no action required).

Escaping a Grapple. While grappled, a creature can use its action to make an Athletics or Acrobatics check opposed by your Athletics check.

Moving a Grappled Creature. When you move, you can drag or carry the grappled creature with you, but your speed is halved, unless the creature is two or more sizes smaller than you.

Shoving

Using the Attack action, you can attempt to shove a creature no more than one size larger than you and within your reach. You make an Athletics check opposed by its Athletics or Acrobatics check. If you succeed, you either move it 5 feet in any direction or knock it prone.

Cover and Concealment

Cover
Cover Type Effect
1/2 cover +2 bonus to AC and Dexterity saving throws.
3/4 cover +5 bonus to AC and Dexterity saving throws.
Full cover Can’t be targeted by an attack or a spell, although area of effect spells and abilities are still effective.
Concealment
Hindrance Examples
Lightly Obscured Disadvantage on Perception checks relying on sight Dim light, patchy fog, moderate foliage
Heavily Obscured Blinded condition Darkness, opaque fog, dense foliage

Damage and Healing

Damage Rolls

If a spell or other effect deals damage to more than one target at the same time, roll the damage once for all of them. For example, when a wizard casts fireball or a cleric casts flame strike, the spell’s damage is rolled once for all creatures caught in the blast.

Damage Types

Type Description
Acid Corrosive substances, magical or alchemical
Bludgeoning Blunt force hits (hammer, falling, etc.)
Cold Extreme low temperature and magic attacks
Fire Fire breaths and fire based spells and magic
Force Pure magical energy focused in damaging form
Lightning lightning bolt, or electricity spells.
Necrotic Dealt by certain undead and corrupted magic
Piercing Puncturing and impaling attacks and weapon
Poison Venomous stings, spores, substances and gases
Psychic Mental attacks and damage like psionic abilities
Radiant Holy damage, like divine spells or creatures
Slashing Swords, axes, and monster claws that slash
Thunder Concussive burst of sound or shock wave

Improvising Damage

Dice Examples
1d10 Burned by coals, hit by a falling bookcase, pricked by a poison needle
2d10 Being struck by lightning, stumbling into a fire pit
4d10 Hit by falling rubble in a collapsing tunnel, stumbling into a vat of acid
10d10 Crushed by compacting walls, hit by whirling steel blades, wading through a lava stream
18d10 Being submerged in lava, being hit by a crashing flying fortress
24d10 Tumbling into a vortex of fire on the Elemental Plane of Fire, being crushed in the jaws of a godlike creature or a moon-sized monster
Damage Severity and Level
Character Level Setback Dangerous Deadly
1st–4th 1d10 2d10 4d10
5th–10th 2d10 4d10 10d10
11th–16th 4d10 10d10 18d10
17th–20th 10d10 18d10 24d10

Lingering Injuries

Damage normally leaves no lingering effects. This option introduces the potential for long-term injuries.

It’s up to you to decide when to check for a lingering injury. A creature might sustain a lingering injury under the following circumstances:

  • When it takes a critical hit
  • When it drops to 0 hit points but isn’t killed outright
  • When it fails a death saving throw by 5 or more
d20 Injury
1 Lose an Eye. You have disadvantage on Wisdom (Perception) checks that rely on sight and on ranged attack rolls. Magic such as the regenerate spell can restore the lost eye. If you have no eyes left after sustaining this injury, you’re blinded.
2 Lose an Arm or a Hand. You can no longer hold anything with two hands, and you can hold only a single object at a time. Magic such as the regenerate spell can restore the lost appendage.
3 Lose a Foot or Leg. Your speed on foot is halved, and you must use a cane or crutch to move unless you have a peg leg or other prosthesis. You fall prone after using the Dash action. You have disadvantage on Dexterity checks made to balance. Magic such as the regenerate spell can restore the lost appendage.
4 Limp. Your speed on foot is reduced by 5 feet. You must make a DC 10 Dexterity saving throw after using the Dash action. If you fail the save, you fall prone. Magical healing removes the limp.
5–7 Internal Injury. Whenever you attempt an action in combat, you must make a DC 15 Constitution saving throw. On a failed save, you lose your action and can’t use reactions until the start of your next turn. The injury heals if you receive magical healing or if you spend ten days doing nothing but resting.
8–10 Broken Ribs. This has the same effect as Internal Injury above, except that the save DC is 10.
11–13 Horrible Scar. You are disfigured to the extent that the wound can’t be easily concealed. You have disadvantage on Charisma (Persuasion) checks and advantage on Charisma (Intimidation) checks. Magical healing of 6th level or higher, such as heal and regenerate, removes the scar.
14–16 Festering Wound. Your hit point maximum is reduced by 1 every 24 hours the wound persists. If your hit point maximum drops to 0, you die. The wound heals if you receive magical healing. Alternatively, someone can tend to the wound and make a DC 15 Wisdom (Medicine) check once every 24 hours. After ten successes, the wound heals.
17–20 Minor Scar. The scar doesn’t have any adverse effect. Magical healing of 6th level or higher, such as heal and regenerate, removes the scar.

Massive Damage

This optional rule makes it easier for a creature to be felled by massive damage.

When a creature takes damage from a single source equal to or greater than half its hit point maximum, it must succeed on a DC 15 Constitution saving throw or suffer a random effect determined by a roll on the System Shock table. For example, a creature that has a hit point maximum of 30 must make that Constitution save if it takes 15 damage or more from a single source.

System Shock
d10 Effect
1 The creature drops to 0 hit points.
2–3 The creature drops to 0 hit points but is stable.
4–5 The creature is stunned until the end of its next turn.
6–7 The creature can’t take reactions and has disadvantage on attack rolls and ability checks until the end of its next turn.
8–10 The creature can’t take reactions until the end of its next turn.

Dropping to 0 Hit Points

When you drop to 0 hit points, you either die outright or fall unconscious, as explained in the following sections.

Instant Death. When damage reduces you to 0 hit points and there is damage remaining, you die if the remaining damage equals or exceeds your hit point maximum.

Rolling a 1 or 20. When you make a death saving throw and roll a 1 on the d20, it counts as two failures. If you roll a 20 on the d20, you regain 1 hit point.

Damage at 0 Hit Points. If you take any damage while you have 0 hit points, you suffer a death saving throw failure. If the damage is from a critical hit, you suffer two failures instead. If the damage equals or exceeds your hit point maximum, you suffer instant death.

Stabilizing a Creature. The best way to save a creature with 0 hit points is to heal it. If healing is unavailable, the creature can at least be stabilized so that it isn’t killed by a failed death saving throw. You can use your action to administer first aid to an unconscious creature and attempt to stabilize it, which requires a successful DC 10 Wisdom (Medicine) check. A stable creature doesn’t make death saving throws, even though it has 0 hit points, but it does remain unconscious. The creature stops being stable, and must start making death saving throws again, if it takes any damage. A stable creature that isn’t healed regains 1 hit point after 1d4 hours.

Knocking a Creature Out

When an attacker reduces a creature to 0 hit points with a melee attack, the attacker can knock the creature out. The attacker can make this choice the instant the damage is dealt. The creature falls unconscious and is stable.

Temporary Hit Points

Temporary hit points aren’t actual hit points; they are a buffer against damage, a pool of hit points that protect you from injury.

When you have temporary hit points and take damage, the temporary hit points are lost first, and any leftover damage carries over to your normal hit points. For example, if you have 5 temporary hit points and take 7 damage, you lose the temporary hit points and then take 2 damage.

Because temporary hit points are separate from your actual hit points, they can exceed your hit point maximum. A character can, therefore, be at full hit points and receive temporary hit points.

Healing can’t restore temporary hit points, and they can’t be added together. If you have temporary hit points and receive more of them, you decide whether to keep the ones you have or to gain the new ones. For example, if a spell grants you 12 temporary hit points when you already have 10, you can have 12 or 10, not 22.

If you have 0 hit points, receiving temporary hit points doesn’t restore you to consciousness or stabilize you. They can still absorb damage directed at you while you’re in that state, but only true healing can save you.

Unless a feature that grants you temporary hit points has a duration, they last until they’re depleted or you finish a long rest.

Conditions

Blinded

  • A blinded creature can’t see and automatically fails any ability check that requires sight.
  • Attack rolls against the creature have advantage, and the creature’s attack rolls have disadvantage.

Charmed

  • A charmed creature can’t attack the charmer or target the charmer with harmful abilities or magical effects.
  • The charmer has advantage on any ability check to interact socially with the creature.

Deafened

  • A deafened creature can’t hear and automatically fails any ability check that requires hearing.

Exhaustion

Some special abilities and environmental hazards, such as starvation and the long-term effects of freezing or scorching temperatures, can lead to a special condition called exhaustion. Exhaustion is measured in six levels. An effect can give a creature one or more levels of exhaustion, as specified in the effect’s description.

Level Effect
1 Disadvantage on ability checks
2 Speed halved
3 Disadvantage on attack rolls and saving throws
4 Hit point maximum halved
5 Speed reduced to 0
6 Death

If an already exhausted creature suffers another effect that causes exhaustion, its current level of exhaustion increases by the amount specified in the effect’s description.

A creature suffers the effect of its current level of exhaustion as well as all lower levels. For example, a creature suffering level 2 exhaustion has its speed halved and has disadvantage on ability checks.

An effect that removes exhaustion reduces its level as specified in the effect’s description, with all exhaustion effects ending if a creature’s exhaustion level is reduced below 1.
Finishing a long rest reduces a creature’s exhaustion level by 1, provided that the creature has also ingested some food and drink. Also, being raised from the dead reduces a creature’s exhaustion level by 1.

Frightened

  • A frightened creature has disadvantage on ability checks and attack rolls while the source of its fear is within line of sight.
  • The creature can’t willingly move closer to the source of its fear.

Grappled

  • A grappled creature’s speed becomes 0, and it can’t benefit from any bonus to its speed.
  • The condition ends if the grappler is incapacitated (see the condition).
  • The condition also ends if an effect removes the grappled creature from the reach of the grappler or grappling effect, such as when a creature is hurled away by the thunderwave spell.

Incapacitated

  • An incapacitated creature can’t take actions or reactions.

Invisible

  • An invisible creature is impossible to see without the aid of magic or a special sense. For the purpose of hiding, the creature is heavily obscured. The creature’s location can be detected by any noise it makes or any tracks it leaves.
  • Attack rolls against the creature have disadvantage, and the creature’s attack rolls have advantage.

Paralyzed

  • A paralyzed creature is incapacitated (see the condition) and can’t move or speak.
  • The creature automatically fails Strength and Dexterity saving throws. Attack rolls against the creature have advantage.
  • Any attack that hits the creature is a critical hit if the attacker is within 5 feet of the creature.

Petrified

  • A petrified creature is transformed, along with any nonmagical object it is wearing or carrying, into a solid inanimate substance (usually stone). Its weight increases by a factor of ten, and it ceases aging.
  • The creature is incapacitated (see the condition), can’t move or speak, and is unaware of its surroundings.
  • Attack rolls against the creature have advantage.
  • The creature automatically fails Strength and Dexterity saving throws.
  • The creature has resistance to all damage.
  • The creature is immune to poison and disease, although a poison or disease already in its system is suspended, not neutralized.

Poisoned

  • A poisoned creature has disadvantage on attack rolls and ability checks.

Prone

  • A prone creature’s only movement option is to crawl, unless it stands up and thereby ends the condition.
  • The creature has disadvantage on attack rolls.
  • An attack roll against the creature has advantage if the attacker is within 5 feet of the creature. Otherwise, the attack roll has disadvantage.

Restrained

  • A restrained creature’s speed becomes 0, and it can’t benefit from any bonus to its speed.
  • Attack rolls against the creature have advantage, and the creature’s attack rolls have disadvantage.
  • The creature has disadvantage on Dexterity saving throws.

Stunned

  • A stunned creature is incapacitated (see the condition), can’t move, and can speak only falteringly.
  • The creature automatically fails Strength and Dexterity saving throws.
  • Attack rolls against the creature have advantage.

Unconscious

  • An unconscious creature is incapacitated, can’t move or speak, and is unaware of its surroundings
  • The creature drops whatever it’s holding and falls prone.
  • The creature automatically fails Strength and Dexterity saving throws.
  • Attack rolls against the creature have advantage.
  • Any attack that hits the creature is a critical hit if the attacker is within 5 feet of the creature.

Equipment and Expenses

Currency Exchange Rates

Coin CP SP EP GP PP
Copper 1 1/10 1/50 1/100 1/1000
Silver 10 1 1/5 1/10 1/100
Electrum 50 5 1 1/2 1/20
Gold 100 10 2 1 1/10
Platinum 1000 100 50 10 1

Armor

Armor Name Cost Armor Class (AC) Strength Stealth Weight
Light Armor
Padded 5 gp 11 + Dex modifier Disadvantage 8 lb.
Leather 10 gp 11 + Dex modifier 10 lb.
Studded leather 45 gp 12 + Dex modifier 13 lb.
Medium Armor
Hide 10 gp 12 + Dex modifier (max 2) 12 lb.
Chain shirt 50 gp 13 + Dex modifier (max 2) 20 lb.
Scale mail 50 gp 14 + Dex modifier (max 2) Disadvantage 45 lb.
Breastplate 400 gp 14 + Dex modifier (max 2) 20 lb.
Half plate 750 gp 15 + Dex modifier (max 2) Disadvantage 40 lb.
Heavy Armor
Ring mail 30 gp 14 Disadvantage 40 lb.
Chain mail 75 gp 16 Str 13 Disadvantage 55 lb.
Splint 200 gp 17 Str 15 Disadvantage 60 lb.
Plate 1,500 gp 18 Str 15 Disadvantage 65 lb.
Shield
Shield 10 gp +2 6 lb.

Donning and Doffing

Category Don Doff
Light Armor 1 minute 1 minute
Medium Armor 5 minutes 1 minute
Heavy Armor 10 minutes 5 minutes
Shield 1 action 1 action

Weapons

Weapon Name Cost Damage Weight Properties
Simple Melee Weapons
Club 1 sp 1d4 bludgeoning 2 lb. Light
Dagger 2 gp 1d4 piercing 1 lb. Finesse, light, thrown (range 20/60)
Greatclub 2 sp 1d8 bludgeoning 10 lb. Two-handed
Handaxe 5 gp 1d6 slashing 2 lb. Light, thrown (range 20/60)
Javelin 5 sp 1d6 piercing 2 lb. Thrown (range 30/120)
Light hammer 2 gp 1d4 bludgeoning 2 lb. Light, thrown (range 20/60)
Mace 5 gp 1d6 bludgeoning 4 lb.
Quarterstaff 2 sp 1d6 bludgeoning 4 lb. Versatile (1d8)
Sickle 1 gp 1d4 slashing 2 lb. Light
Spear 1 gp 1d6 piercing 3 lb. Thrown (range 20/60), versatile (1d8)
Simple Ranged Weapons
Crossbow, light 25 gp 1d8 piercing 5 lb. Ammunition (range 80/320), loading, two-handed
Dart 5 cp 1d4 piercing 1/4 lb. Finesse, thrown (range 20/60)
Shortbow 25 gp 1d6 piercing 2 lb. Ammunition (range 80/320), two-handed
Sling 1 sp 1d4 bludgeoning Ammunition (range 30/120)
Martial Melee Weapons
Battleaxe 10 gp 1d8 slashing 4 lb. Versatile (1d10)
Flail 10 gp 1d8 bludgeoning 2 lb.
Glaive 20 gp 1d10 slashing 6 lb. Heavy, reach, two-handed
Greataxe 30 gp 1d12 slashing 7 lb. Heavy, two-handed
Greatsword 50 gp 2d6 slashing 6 lb. Heavy, two-handed
Halberd 20 gp 1d10 slashing 6 lb. Heavy, reach, two-handed
Lance 10 gp 1d12 piercing 6 lb. Reach, special
Longsword 15 gp 1d8 slashing 3 lb. Versatile (1d10)
Maul 10 gp 2d6 bludgeoning 10 lb. Heavy, two-handed
Morningstar 15 gp 1d8 piercing 4 lb.
Pike 5 gp 1d10 piercing 18 lb. Heavy, reach, two-handed
Rapier 25 gp 1d8 piercing 2 lb. Finesse
Scimitar 25 gp 1d6 slashing 3 lb. Finesse, light
Shortsword 10 gp 1d6 piercing 2 lb. Finesse, light
Trident 5 gp 1d6 piercing 4 lb. Thrown (range 20/60), versatile (1d8)
War pick 5 gp 1d8 piercing 2 lb.
Warhammer 15 gp 1d8 bludgeoning 2 lb. Versatile (1d10)
Whip 2 gp 1d4 slashing 3 lb. Finesse, reach
Martial Ranged Weapons
Blowgun 10 gp 1 piercing 1 lb. Ammunition (range 25/100), loading
Crossbow, hand 75 gp 1d6 piercing 3 lb. Ammunition (range 30/120), light, loading
Crossbow, heavy 50 gp 1d10 piercing 18 lb. Ammunition (range 100/400), heavy, loading, two-handed
Longbow 50 gp 1d8 piercing 2 lb. Ammunition (range 150/600), heavy, two-handed
Net 1 gp 3 lb. Special, thrown (range 5/15)

Weapon Properties

Property Description
Ammunition You can use a weapon that has the ammunition property to make a ranged attack only if you have ammunition to fire from the weapon. Each time you attack with the weapon, you expend one piece of ammunition. Drawing the ammunition from a quiver, case, or other container is part of the attack. At the end of the battle, you can recover half your expended ammunition by taking a minute to search the battlefield.
Finesse When making an attack with a finesse weapon, you use your choice of your Strength or Dexterity modifier for the attack and damage rolls. You must use the same modifier for both rolls.
Heavy Small creatures have disadvantage on attack rolls with heavy weapons. A heavy weapon’s size and bulk make it too large for a Small creature to use effectively.
Light A light weapon is small and easy to handle, making it ideal for use when fighting with two weapons.
Loading Because of the time required to load this weapon, you can fire only one piece of ammunition from it when you use an action, bonus action, or reaction to fire it, regardless of the number of attacks you can normally make.
Range A weapon that can be used to make a ranged attack has a range shown in parentheses after the ammunition or thrown property. The range lists two numbers. The first is the weapon’s normal range in feet, and the second indicates the weapon’s maximum range. When attacking a target beyond normal range, you have disadvantage on the attack roll. You can’t attack a target beyond the weapon’s long range.
Reach This weapon adds 5 feet to your reach when you attack with it.
Special A weapon with the special property has unusual rules governing its use, explained in the weapon’s description (see “Special Weapons” later in this section).
  (Lance) You have disadvantage when you use a lance to attack a target within 5 feet of you. Also, a lance requires two hands to wield when you aren’t mounted.
  (Net) A Large or smaller creature hit by a net is restrained until it is freed. A net has no effect on creatures that are formless, or creatures that are Huge or larger. A creature can use its action to make a DC 10 Strength check, freeing itself or another creature within its reach on a success. Dealing 5 slashing damage to the net (AC 10) also frees the creature without harming it, ending the effect and destroying the net. When you use an action, bonus action, or reaction to attack with a net, you can make only one attack regardless of the number of attacks you can normally make.
Thrown If a weapon has the thrown property, you can throw the weapon to make a ranged attack. If the weapon is a melee weapon, you use the same ability modifier for that attack roll and damage roll that you would use for a melee attack with the weapon. For example, if you throw a handaxe, you use your Strength, but if you throw a dagger, you can use either your Strength or your Dexterity, since the dagger has the finesse property.
Two-Handed This weapon requires two hands to use.
Versatile This weapon can be used with one or two hands. A damage value in parentheses appears with the property—the damage when the weapon is used with two hands to make a melee attack.

Adventuring Gear

Item Cost Weight
Abacus 2 gp 2 lb.
Acid (vial) 25 gp 1 lb.
Alchemist’s fire (flask) 50 gp 1 lb.
Ammunition
    Arrows (20) 1 gp 1 lb.
    Blowgun needles (50) 1 gp 1 lb.
    Crossbow bolts (20) 1 gp 1½ lb.
    Sling bullets (20) 4 cp 1½ lb.
Antitoxin (vial) 50 gp
Arcane focus
    Crystal 10 gp 1 lb.
    Orb 20 gp 3 lb.
    Rod 10 gp 2 lb.
    Staff 5 gp 4 lb.
    Wand 10 gp 1 lb.
Backpack 2 gp 5 lb.
Ball bearings (bag of 1,000) 1 gp 2 lb.
Barrel 2 gp 70 lb.
Basket 4 sp 2 lb.
Bedroll 1 gp 7 lb.
Bell 1 gp
Blanket 5 sp 3 lb.
Block and tackle 1 gp 5 lb.
Book 25 gp 5 lb.
Bottle, glass 2 gp 2 lb.
Bucket 5 cp 2 lb.
Caltrops (bag of 20) 1 gp 2 lb.
Candle 1 cp
Case, crossbow bolt 1 gp 1 lb.
Case, map or scroll 1 gp 1 lb.
Chain (10 feet) 5 gp 10 lb.
Chalk (1 piece) 1 cp
Chest 5 gp 25 lb.
Climber’s kit 25 gp 12 lb.
Clothes, common 5 sp 3 lb.
Clothes, costume 5 gp 4 lb.
Clothes, fine 15 gp 6 lb.
Clothes, traveler’s 2 gp 4 lb.
Component pouch 25 gp 2 lb.
Crowbar 2 gp 5 lb.
Druidic focus
    Sprig of mistletoe 1 gp
    Totem 1 gp
    Wooden staff 5 gp 4 lb.
    Yew wand 10 gp 1 lb.
Fishing tackle 1 gp 4 lb.
Flask or tankard 2 cp 1 lb.
Grappling hook 2 gp 4 lb.
Hammer 1 gp 3 lb.
Hammer, sledge 2 gp 10 lb.
Healer’s kit 5 gp 3 lb.
Holy symbol
    Amulet 5 gp 1 lb.
    Emblem 5 gp
    Reliquary 5 gp 2 lb.
Holy water (flask) 25 gp 1 lb.
Hourglass 25 gp 1 lb.
Hunting trap 5 gp 25 lb.
Ink (1 ounce bottle) 10 gp
Ink pen 2 cp
Jug or pitcher 2 cp 4 lb.
Ladder (10-foot) 1 sp 25 lb.
Lamp 5 sp 1 lb.
Lantern, bullseye 10 gp 2 lb.
Lantern, hooded 5 gp 2 lb.
Lock 10 gp 1 lb.
Magnifying glass 100 gp
Manacles 2 gp 6 lb.
Mess kit 2 sp 1 lb.
Mirror, steel 5 gp 1/2 lb.
Oil (flask) 1 sp 1 lb.
Paper (one sheet) 2 sp
Parchment (one sheet) 1 sp
Perfume (vial) 5 gp
Pick, miner’s 2 gp 10 lb.
Piton 5 cp 1/4 lb.
Poison, basic (vial) 100 gp
Pole (10-foot) 5 cp 7 lb.
Pot, iron 2 gp 10 lb.
Potion of healing 50 gp 1/2 lb.
Pouch 5 sp 1 lb.
Quiver 1 gp 1 lb.
Ram, portable 4 gp 35 lb.
Rations (1 day) 5 sp 2 lb.
Robes 1 gp 4 lb.
Rope, hempen (50 feet) 1 gp 10 lb.
Rope, silk (50 feet) 10 gp 5 lb.
Sack 1 cp 1/2 lb.
Scale, merchant’s 5 gp 3 lb.
Sealing wax 5 sp
Shovel 2 gp 5 lb.
Signal whistle 5 cp
Signet ring 5 gp
Soap 2 cp
Spellbook 50 gp 3 lb.
Spikes, iron (10) 1 gp 5 lb.
Spyglass 1,000 gp 1 lb.
Tent, two-person 2 gp 20 lb.
Tinderbox 5 sp 1 lb.
Torch 1 cp 1 lb.
Vial 1 gp
Waterskin 2 sp 5 lb. (full)
Whetstone 1 cp 1 lb.

Tools

Item Cost Weight
Artisan’s tools
    Alchemist’s supplies 50 gp 8 lb.
    Brewer’s supplies 20 gp 9 lb.
    Calligrapher’s supplies 10 gp 5 lb.
    Carpenter’s tools 8 gp 6 lb.
    Cartographer’s tools 15 gp. 6 lb.
    Cobbler’s tools 5 gp 5 lb.
    Cook’s utensils 1 gp 8 lb.
    Glassblower’s tools 30 gp 5 lb.
    Jeweler’s tools 25 gp 2 lb.
    Leatherworker’s tools 5 gp 5 lb.
    Mason’s tools 10 gp 8 lb.
    Painter’s supplies 10 gp 5 lb.
    Potter’s tools 10 gp 3 lb.
    Smith’s tools 20 gp 8 lb.
    Tinker’s tools 50 gp 10 lb.
    Weaver’s tools 1 gp 5 lb.
    Woodcarver’s tools 1 gp 5 lb.
Disguise kit 25 gp 3 lb.
Forgery kit 15 gp 5 lb.
Gaming set
    Dice set 1 sp
    Dragonchess set 1 gp 1/2 lb.
    Playing card set 5 sp
    Three-Dragon Ante set 1 gp
Herbalism kit 5 gp 3 lb.
Musical instrument
    Bagpipes 30 gp 6 lb.
    Drum 6 gp 3 lb.
    Dulcimer 25 gp 10 lb.
    Flute 2 gp 1 lb.
    Lute 35 gp 2 lb.
    Lyre 30 gp 2 lb.
    Horn 3 gp 2 lb.
    Pan flute 12 gp 2 lb.
    Shawm 2 gp 1 lb.
    Viol 30 gp 1 lb.
Navigator’s tools 25 gp 2 lb.
Poisoner’s kit 50 gp 2 lb.
Thieves’ tools 25 gp 1 lb.

Container Capacity

Container Capacity
Backpack* 1 cubic foot/30 pounds of gear
Barrel 40 gallons liquid, 4 cubic feet solid
Basket 2 cubic feet/40 pounds of gear
Bottle 1 1/2 pints liquid
Bucket 3 gallons liquid, 1/2 cubic foot solid
Chest 12 cubic feet/300 pounds gear
Flask or tankard 1 pint liquid
Jug or pitcher 1 gallon liquid
Pot, iron 1 gallon liquid
Pouch 1/5 cubic foot/6 pounds of gear
Sack 1 cubic foot/30 pounds of gear
Vial 4 ounces liquid
Waterskin 4 pints liquid

* You can also strap items, such as a bedroll or a coil of rope, to the outside of a backpack.

Mounts and Vehicles

Mounts

Item Cost Speed Carrying Capacity
Camel 50gp 50ft. 480 lb
Donkey or Mule 8gp 40ft. 420 lb
Elephant 200gp 40ft. 1320 lb
Horse, draft 50gp 40ft. 540 lb
Horse, riding 75gp 60ft. 480 lb
Mastiff 25gp 40ft. 195 lb
Pony 30gp 40ft. 225 lb
Warhorse 400gp 60ft. 540 lb

Tack, Harness, and Drawn Vehicles

Item Cost Weight
Barding x4 x2
Bit and bridle 2gp 1 lb
Carriage 100gp 600 lb
Cart 15gp 200 lb
Chariot 250gp 100 lb
Feed (per day) 5cp 10 lb
Saddle
    Exotic 60gp 40 lb
    Military 20gp 30 lb
    Pack 5gp 15 lb
    Riding 10gp 25 lb
Saddlebags 4gp 8 lb
Sled 20gp 300 lb
Stabling (per day) 5sp
Wagon 35gp 400 lb

Waterborne Vehicles

Item Cost Speed
Galley 30,000gp 4 mph
Keelboat 3,000gp 1 mph
Longship 10,000gp 3 mph
Rowboat 50gp 1.5 mph
Sailing Ship 10,000gp 2 mph
Warship 25,000gp 2.5 mph

Trade Goods

Cost Goods
1 cp 1 lb. of wheat
2 cp 1 lb. of flour or one chicken
5 cp 1 lb. of salt
1 sp 1 lb. of iron or 1 sq. yd. of canvas
5 sp 1 lb. of copper of 1 sq. yd. of cotton cloth
1 gp 1 lb. of ginger or one goat
2 gp 1 lb. of cinnamon or pepper, or one sheep
3 gp 1 lb. of cloves or one pig
5 gp 1 lb. of silver or 1 sq. yd. of linen
10 gp 1 sq. yd. of silk or one cow
15 gp 1 lb. of saffron or one ox
50 gp 1 lb. of gold
500 gp 1 lb. of platinum

Expenses

Lifestyle Price/Day
Wretched
Squalid 1 sp
Poor 2 sp
Modest 1 gp
Comfortable 2 gp
Wealthy 4 gp
Aristocratic 10 gp minimum

Food, Drink, and Lodging

Food and Drink
Item Cost
Ale (gallon) 2 sp
Ale (mug) 4 cp
Banquet (per person) 10 gp
Bread, loaf 2 cp
Cheese, hunk 1 sp
Meat, chunk 3 sp
Wine, common (pitcher) 2 sp
Wine, fine (bottle) 10 gp
Meals and Lodging (per day)
Item Meals Cost Lodging Cost
Squalid 3 cp 7 cp
Poor 6 cp 1 sp
Modest 3 sp 5 sp
Comfortable 5 sp 8 sp
Wealthy 8 sp 2 gp
Aristocratic 2 gp 4 gp

Services

Service Pay
Coach cab (Between towns) 3 cp per mile
Coach cab (Within a city) 1 cp
Hireling (Skilled) 2 gp per day
Hireling (Untrained) 2 sp per day
Messenger 2 cp per mile
Road or gate toll 1 cp
Ship’s passage 1 sp per mile
1st Level Spell1 10-30 gp + components
2nd Level Spell1 30-50 gp + components
3rd+ Level Spell2 Varies3

1 First and second level spellcasting services are easy enough to find in a decently sized city or town.
2 Third level and higher spells are much more rare and can only be found with any amount of regularity in a large city, perhaps home to a University or Temple.
3 A spellcaster might ask for a service rather than monetary payment.

Useful Items

Acid. As an action, you can splash the contents of this vial onto a creature within 5 feet of you or throw the vial up to 20 feet, shattering it on impact. In either case, make a ranged attack against a creature or object, treating the acid as an improvised weapon. On a hit, the target takes 2d6 acid damage.

Alchemist’s Fire. This sticky, adhesive fluid ignites when exposed to air. As an action, you can throw this flask up to 20 feet, shattering it on impact. Make a ranged attack against a creature or object, treating the alchemist’s fire as an improvised weapon. On a hit, the target takes 1d4 fire damage at the start of each of its turns. A creature can end this damage by using its action to make a DC 10 Dexterity check to extinguish the flames.

Antitoxin. A creature that drinks this vial of liquid gains advantage on saving throws against poison for 1 hour. It confers no benefit to undead or constructs.

Ball Bearings. As an action, you can spill these tiny metal balls from their pouch to cover a level, square area that is 10 feet on a side. A creature moving across the covered area must succeed on a DC 10 Dexterity saving throw or fall prone. A creature moving through the area at half speed doesn’t need to make the save.

Caltrops. As an action, you can spread a bag of caltrops to cover a square area that is 5 feet on a side. Any creature that enters the area must succeed on a DC 15 Dexterity saving throw or stop moving this turn and take 1 piercing damage. Taking this damage reduces the creature’s walking speed by 10 feet until the creature regains at least 1 hit point. A creature moving through the area at half speed doesn’t need to make the save.

Healer’s Kit. This kit is a leather pouch containing bandages, salves, and splints. The kit has ten uses. As an action, you can expend one use of the kit to stabilize a creature that has 0 hit points, without needing to make a Wisdom (Medicine) check.

Holy Water. As an action, you can splash the contents of this flask onto a creature within 5 feet of you or throw it up to 20 feet, shattering it on impact. In either case, make a ranged attack against a target creature, treating the holy water as an improvised weapon. If the target is a fiend or undead, it takes 2d6 radiant damage.

A cleric or paladin may create holy water by performing a special ritual. The ritual takes 1 hour to perform, uses 25 gp worth of powdered silver, and requires the caster to expend a 1st-level spell slot.

Oil. Oil usually comes in a clay flask that holds 1 pint. As an action, you can splash the oil in this flask onto a creature within 5 feet of you or throw it up to 20 feet, shattering it on impact. Make a ranged attack against a target creature or object, treating the oil as an improvised weapon. On a hit, the target is covered in oil. If the target takes any fire damage before the oil dries (after 1 minute), the target takes an additional 5 fire damage from the burning oil. You can also pour a flask of oil on the ground to cover a 5-foot-square area, provided that the surface is level. If lit, the oil burns for 2 rounds and deals 5 fire damage to any creature that enters the area or ends its turn in the area. A creature can take this damage only once per turn.

Potion of Healing. A character who drinks the magical red fluid in this vial regains 2d4 + 2 hit points. Drinking or administering a potion takes an action.

Torch. A torch burns for 1 hour, providing bright light in a 20-foot radius and dim light for an additional 20 feet. If you make a melee attack with a burning torch and hit, it deals 1 fire damage.

Spellcasting

Casting in Armor

Because of the mental focus and precise gestures required for spellcasting, you must be proficient with the armor you are wearing to cast a spell. You are otherwise too distracted and physically hampered by your armor for spellcasting.

Rituals

The ritual version of a spell takes 10 minutes longer to cast than normal. It also doesn’t expend a spell slot, which means the ritual version of a spell can’t be cast at a higher level.

Longer Casting Times

Certain spells (including spells cast as rituals) require more time to cast: minutes or even hours. When you cast a spell with a casting time longer than a single action or reaction, you must spend your action each turn casting the spell, and you must maintain your concentration while you do so. If your concentration is broken, the spell fails, but you don’t expend a spell slot. If you want to try casting the spell again, you must start over.

Concentration

Some spells require you to maintain concentration in order to keep their magic active. If you lose concentration, such a spell ends.

If a spell must be maintained with concentration, that fact appears in its Duration entry, and the spell specifies how long you can concentrate on it. You can end concentration at any time (no action required).

Normal activity, such as moving and attacking, doesn’t interfere with concentration. The following factors can break concentration:

  • Casting another spell that requires concentration. You lose concentration on a spell if you cast another spell that requires concentration. You can’t concentrate on two spells at once.
  • Taking damage. Whenever you take damage while you are concentrating on a spell, you must make a Constitution saving throw to maintain your concentration. The DC equals 10 or half the damage you take, whichever number is higher. If you take damage from multiple sources, such as an arrow and a dragon’s breath, you make a separate saving throw for each source of damage.
  • Being incapacitated or killed. You lose concentration on a spell if you are incapacitated or if you die.

The DM might also decide that certain environmental phenomena, such as a wave crashing over you while you’re on a storm-tossed ship, require you to succeed on a DC 10 Constitution saving throw to maintain concentration on a spell.

Saving Throws

The DC to resist one of your spells equals 8 + your spellcasting ability modifier + your proficiency bonus + any special modifiers.

Attack Rolls

Your attack bonus with a spell attack equals your spellcasting ability modifier + your proficiency bonus.

Remember that you have disadvantage on a ranged attack roll if you are within 5 feet of a hostile creature that can see you and that isn’t incapacitated.

Casting From Scrolls

Whatever the nature of the magic contained in a scroll, unleashing that magic requires using an action to read the scroll. When its magic has been invoked, the scroll can’t be used again. Its words fade, or it crumbles into dust.

Any creature that can understand a written language can read the arcane script on a scroll and attempt to activate it.

Copying a Spell Into a Spellbook

When you find a Wizard spell of 1st level or higher, a wizard can add it to their spellbook if it is of a level for which they have spell slots and if they can spare the time to decipher and copy it. For each level of the spell, the process takes 2 hours and costs 50 gp.

Encounter Building

You can use this process after you’ve already designed an encounter to determine its difficulty or you can use it to start an encounter from scratch with a target difficulty in mind.

1. Determine XP Thresholds. First, determine the experience point (XP) thresholds for each character in the party. The XP Thresholds by Character Level table below has four XP thresholds for each character level, one for each category of encounter difficulty. Use a character’s level to determine his or her XP thresholds. Repeat this process for every character in the party.

2. Determine the Party’s XP Threshold. For each category of encounter difficulty, add up the characters’ XP thresholds. This determines the party’s XP threshold. You’ll end up with four totals, one for each category of encounter difficulty.

3. Total the Monsters’ XP. Add up the XP for all of the monsters in the encounter. Every monster has an XP value in its stat block.

4. Modify Total XP for Multiple Monsters. If the encounter includes more than one monster, apply a multiplier to the monsters’ total XP. The more monsters there are, the more attack rolls you’re making against the characters in a given round, and the more dangerous the encounter becomes. To correctly gauge an encounter’s difficulty, multiply the total XP of all the monsters in the encounter by the value given in the Encounter Multipliers table.

5. Compare XP. Compare the monsters’ adjusted XP value to the party’s XP thresholds. The threshold that equals the adjusted XP value determines the encounter’s difficulty. If there’s no match, use the closest threshold that is lower than the adjusted XP value.

XP Thresholds by Character Level

Character Level —– Encounter Difficulty —–
Easy Medium Hard Deadly
1st 25 50 75 100
2nd 50 100 150 200
3rd 75 150 225 400
4th 125 250 375 500
5th 250 500 750 1,100
6th 300 600 900 1,400
7th 350 750 1,100 1,700
8th 450 900 1,400 2,100
9th 550 1,100 1,600 2,400
10th 600 1,200 1,900 2,800
11th 800 1,600 2,400 3,600
12th 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,500
13th 1,100 2,200 3,400 5,100
14th 1,250 2,500 3,800 5,700
15th 1,400 2,800 4,300 6,400
16th 1,600 3,200 4,800 7,200
17th 2,000 3,900 5,900 8,800
18th 2,100 4,200 6,300 9,500
19th 2,400 4,900 7,300 10,900
20th 2,800 5,700 8,500 12,700

Encounter XP Multipliers

Number of Monsters Multiplier
1 × 1
2 × 1.5
3–6 × 2
7–10 × 2.5
11–14 × 3
15 or more × 4

Monster Statistics by Challenge Rating

—— Defensive —— ——— Offensive ———
CR Prof.
Bonus
XP Value Armor Class Hit Points Attack Bonus Damage/
Round
Save DC
0 +2 0 or 10 ≤ 13 1–6 ≤ +3 0–1 ≤ 13
1/8 +2 25 13 7–35 +3 2–3 13
1/4 +2 50 13 36–49 +3 4–5 13
1/2 +2 100 13 50–70 +3 6–8 13
1 +2 200 13 71–85 +3 9–14 13
2 +2 450 13 86–100 +3 15–20 13
3 +2 700 13 101–115 +4 21–26 13
4 +2 1,100 14 116–130 +5 27–32 14
5 +3 1,800 15 131–145 +6 33–38 15
6 +3 2,300 15 146–160 +6 39–44 15
7 +3 2,900 15 161–175 +6 45–50 15
8 +3 3,900 16 176–190 +7 51–56 16
9 +4 5,000 16 191–205 +7 57–62 16
10 +4 5,900 17 206–220 +7 63–68 16
11 +4 7,200 17 221–235 +8 69–74 17
12 +4 8,400 17 236–250 +8 75–80 17
13 +5 10,000 18 251–265 +8 81–86 18
14 +5 11,500 18 266–280 +8 87–92 18
15 +5 13,000 18 281–295 +8 93–98 18
16 +5 15,000 18 296–310 +9 99–104 18
17 +6 18,000 19 311–325 +10 105–110 19
18 +6 20,000 19 326–340 +10 111–116 19
19 +6 22,000 19 341–355 +10 117–122 19
20 +6 25,000 19 356–400 +10 123–140 19
21 +7 33,000 19 401–445 +11 141–158 20
22 +7 41,000 19 446–490 +11 159–176 20
23 +7 50,000 19 491–535 +11 177–194 20
24 +7 62,000 19 536–580 +12 195–212 21
25 +8 75,000 19 581–625 +12 213–230 21
26 +8 90,000 19 626–670 +12 231–248 21
27 +8 105,000 19 671–715 +13 249–266 22
28 +8 120,000 19 716–760 +13 267–284 22
29 +9 135,000 19 761–805 +13 285–302 22
30 +9 155,000 19 806–850 +14 303–320 23

Size Categories and Hit Points

Monster Size Space Hit Die Average HP per Die Examples
Tiny 2 1/2 by 2 1/2 ft. d4 Hawk, imp, rat, sprite
Small 5 by 5 ft. d6 Giant rat, goblin, kobold
Medium 5 by 5 ft. d8 Gnoll, orc, werewolf
Large 10 by 10 ft. d10 Chimera, hippogriff, ogre
Huge 15 by 15 ft. d12 Cyclops, fire giant, treant
Gargantuan 20+ by 20+ ft. d20 10½ Ancient red dragon, kraken

Random Encounters

Area Roll 1d20…
Dangerous overworld area
  • Once per hour of travel.
  • Once per 20 minutes of Rest during the day.
  • Once at night.
Encounter on: 18-20 or 19-20
Uncivilized, unsettled, or unknown overworld area
  • Once During the day.
  • Once per 20 minutes of Rest during the day.
  • Once at night.
Encounter on: 17-20 or 18-20
Well-Traveled overworld area
  • Once a day-night cycle
Encounter on: 20
Structure or formation populated by hostiles
  • Once per 15 minutes of rest or idle
Encounter on: 17-20 or 18-20

Random Tables

Quick Find

d12 Find
1 Artwork
2 Body
3 Food or drink
4 Jewelry
5 Key
6 Letter
7 Magic herbs
8 Map
9 Monster parts
10 Secret message
11 Signet or insignia
12 Tome

Something Happened

d20 Event
1 A door opens
2 A fire starts
3 A meteor shoots across the sky
4 A monster appears
5 A screech pierces the air
6 A storm begins
7 A strange star appears in the sky
8 A strong gust of wind blows through
9 A tremor shakes the ground
10 Someone experiences déjà vu
11 Someone gets angry
12 Someone glimpses the future
13 Someone has a sense of foreboding
14 Someone has to go to the bathroom
15 Something spills or falls to the ground
16 Something isn’t where it’s supposed to be
17 The lights go out
18 The sun comes out
19 There’s a foul smell in the air
20 Unexplained magic occurs

Traps

Trap Trigger
d6 Trigger
1 Stepped on (floor, stairs)
2 Moved through (doorway, hallway)
3 Touched (doorknob, statue)
4 Opened (door, treasure chest)
5 Looked at (mural, arcane symbol)
6 Moved
Trap Severity
d6 Severity
1-2 Setback
3-5 Dangerous
6 Deadly
Trap Effect
d100 Effect
01-04 Magic missile shoots from a statue or object
05-07 Collapsing staircase creates a ramp that deposits characters into a pit at its lower end`
08-10 Ceiling block falls, or entire ceiling collapses
11-12 Ceiling lowers slowly into locked room
13-14 Chute opens in floor
15-16 Clanging noise attracts nearby monsters
17-19 Touching an object triggers a disintegrate spell
20-23 Door or other object is coated with contact poison
24-27 Fire shoots out from wall, floor, or object
28-30 Touching an object triggers a flesh to stone spell
31-33 Floor collapses or is an illusion
34-36 Vent releases gas: blinding, acidic, obscuring, paralyzing, poisonous, or sleep-inducing
37-39 Floor tiles are electrified
40-43 Glyph of warding
44-46 Huge wheeled statue rolls down corridor
47-49 Lightning bolt shoots from wall or object
50-52 Locked room floods with water or acid
53-56 Darts shoot out of an opened chest
57-59 A weapon, suit of armor, or rug animates and attacks when touched (see “Animated objects” in the Monster Manual)
60-62 Pendulum, either bladed or weighted as a maul, swings across the room or hall
63-67 Hidden pit opens beneath characters (25% chance that a black pudding or gelatinous cube fills the bottom of the pit)
68-70 Hidden pit floods with acid or fire
71-73 Locking pit floods with water
74-77 Scything blade emerges from wall or object
78-81 Spears (possibly poisoned) spring out
82-84 Brittle stairs collapse over spikes
85-88 Thunderwave knocks characters into a pit or spikes
89-91 Steel or stone jaws restrain a character
92-94 Stone block smashes across hallway
95-97 Symbol
98-00 Walls slide together

Tricks

Trick Objects
d20 Object
1 Book
2 Brain preserved in a jar
3 Burning fire
4 Cracked gem
5 Door
6 Fresco
7 Furniture
8 Glass sculpture
9 Mushroom field
10 Painting
11 Plant or tree
12 Pool of water
13 Runes engraved on wall or floor
14 Skull
15 Sphere of magical energy
16 Statue
17 Stone Obelisk
18 Suit of armor
19 Tapestry or Rug
20 Target Dummy
Trick Effect
d100 Trick Effect
01-06 Ages the first person to touch the object
04-06 The touched object animates, or it animates other objects nearby
07-10 Asks three skill-testing questions (if all three are answered correctly a reward appears)
11-13 Bestows resistances or vulnerability
14-16 Changes a character’s alignment, personality, size, appearance, or sex when touched
17-19 Changes one substance into another, such as gold to lead or metal to brittle crystal
20-22 Creates a force field
23-26 Creates an illusion
27-29 Suppresses magic items for a time
30-32 Enlarges or reduces characters
33-35 Magic mouth speaks a riddle
36-38 Confusion (targets all creatures within 10 ft.)
39-41 Gives directions (true or false)
42-44 Grants a wish
45-47 Flies about to avoid being touched
48-50 Casts geas on the characters
51-53 Increases, reduces, negates, or reverses gravity
54-56 Induces greed
57-59 Contains an imprisoned creature
60-62 Locks or unlocks exits
63-65 Offers a game of chance, with the promise of a reward or valuable information
66-68 Helps or harms certain types of creatures
69-71 Casts polymorph on the characters (lasts 1 hour)
72-75 Presents a puzzle or riddle
76-78 Prevents movement
79-81 Releases coins, false coins, gems, false gems, a magic item, or a map
82-84 Releases, summons, or turns into a monster
85-87 Casts suggestion on the characters
88-90 Wails loudly when touched
91-93 Talks (normal speech, nonsense, poetry and rhymes, singing, spellcasting, or screaming)
94-97 Teleports characters to another place
98-00 Swaps two or more character’s minds

Madness

Short-Term Madness

d100 Effect (lasts 1d10 minutes)
01–20 The character retreats into his or her mind and becomes paralyzed. The effect ends if the character takes any damage.
21–30 The character becomes incapacitated and spends the duration screaming, laughing, or weeping.
31–40 The character becomes frightened and must use his or her action and movement each round to flee from the source of the fear.
41–50 The character begins babbling and is incapable of normal speech or spellcasting.
51–60 The character must use his or her action each round to attack the nearest creature.
61–70 The character experiences vivid hallucinations and has disadvantage on ability checks.
71–75 The character does whatever anyone tells him or her to do that isn’t obviously self-destructive.
76–80 The character experiences an overpowering urge to eat something strange such as dirt, slime, or offal.
81–90 The character is stunned.
91–100 The character falls unconscious.

Long-Term Madness

d100 Effect (lasts 1d10 × 10 hours)
01–10 The character feels compelled to repeat a specific activity over and over, such as washing hands, touching things, praying, or counting coins.
11–20 The character experiences vivid hallucinations and has disadvantage on ability checks.
21–30 The character suffers extreme paranoia. The character has disadvantage on Wisdom and Charisma checks.
31–40 The character regards something (usually the source of madness) with intense revulsion, as if affected by the antipathy effect of the antipathy/sympathy spell.
41–45 The character experiences a powerful delusion. Choose a potion. The character imagines that he or she is under its effects.
46–55 The character becomes attached to a “lucky charm,” such as a person or an object, and has disadvantage on attack rolls, ability checks, and saving throws while more than 30 feet from it.
56–65 The character is blinded (25%) or deafened (75%).
66–75 The character experiences uncontrollable tremors or tics, which impose disadvantage on attack rolls, ability checks, and saving throws that involve Strength or Dexterity.
76–85 The character suffers from partial amnesia. The character knows who he or she is and retains racial traits and class features, but doesn’t recognize other people or remember anything that happened before the madness took effect.
86–90 Whenever the character takes damage, he or she must succeed on a DC 15 Wisdom saving throw or be affected as though he or she failed a saving throw against the confusion spell. The confusion effect lasts for 1 minute.
91–95 The character loses the ability to speak.
96–100 The character falls unconscious. No amount of jostling or damage can wake the character.

Indefinite Madness

d100 Flaw (lasts until cured)
01–15 “Being drunk keeps me sane.”
16–25 “I keep whatever I find.”
26–30 “I try to become more like someone else I know — adopting his or her style of dress, mannerisms, and name.”
31–35 “I must bend the truth, exaggerate, or outright lie to be interesting to other people.”
36–45 “Achieving my goal is the only thing of interest to me, and I’ll ignore everything else to pursue it.”
46–50 “I find it hard to care about anything that goes on around me.”
51–55 “I don’t like the way people judge me all the time.”
56–70 “I am the smartest, wisest, strongest, fastest, and most beautiful person I know.”
71–80 “I am convinced that powerful enemies are hunting me, and their agents are everywhere I go. I am sure they’re watching me all the time.”
81–85 “There’s only one person I can trust. And only I can see this special friend.”
86–95 “I can’t take anything seriously. The more serious the situation, the funnier I find it.”
96–100 “I’ve discovered that I really like killing people.”